Abstract

We present a technique to overcome the depth resolution limitation for 3D active imaging. Applying microsecond laser pulses and sensor gate width, a scene of several hundred meters is illuminated and recorded in a single image. The trapezoid-shaped range intensity profile is analyzed to obtain both the reflectivity and the depth of scene. We demonstrate a 3D scene reconstruction in a depth of 650 to 1550m from only three images with an accuracy of <30m. This depth accuracy is 10 times better than estimated from the classical resolution limit obtained for depth scanning active imaging with a similar number of images. Therefore, this technique enables superresolution depth mapping with a reduction of image data processing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. G. Digger, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halfort, and K. J. Barnard, Opt. Eng. 43, 738 (2003).
  2. R. L. Espinola, E. L. Jacobs, C. E. Halford, R. Vollmerhausen, and D. H. Tofsted, Opt. Express 15, 3816 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Busck, Opt. Eng. 44, 116001 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June 14-16, 2006.
  5. J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, Appl. Opt. 43, 4705 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, Appl. Opt. 45, 6198 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  7. P. Andersson, Opt. Eng. 45, 034301 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Albota, R. M. Heinrich, D. G. Kocher, D. G. Fouche, B. E. Player, M. E. O'Brien, B. F. Aull, J. J. Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. C. Willard, and R. R. Carlson, Appl. Opt. 41, 7671 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Christnacher, Y. Lutz, and D. Monnin, presented at the OPTRO 2005, Paris, France, 2005.
  10. F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, A. Matwyschuk, and D. Monnin, presented at the Méthodes et Techniques Optiques pour l'lndustrie, Mulhouse, France, 2006.

2007

2006

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June 14-16, 2006.

J. F. Andersen, J. Busck, and H. Heiselberg, Appl. Opt. 45, 6198 (2006).
[PubMed]

P. Andersson, Opt. Eng. 45, 034301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, A. Matwyschuk, and D. Monnin, presented at the Méthodes et Techniques Optiques pour l'lndustrie, Mulhouse, France, 2006.

2005

F. Christnacher, Y. Lutz, and D. Monnin, presented at the OPTRO 2005, Paris, France, 2005.

J. Busck, Opt. Eng. 44, 116001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

R. G. Digger, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halfort, and K. J. Barnard, Opt. Eng. 43, 738 (2003).

2002

Albota, M. A.

Andersen, J. F.

Andersson, P.

P. Andersson, Opt. Eng. 45, 034301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

Barnard, K. J.

R. G. Digger, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halfort, and K. J. Barnard, Opt. Eng. 43, 738 (2003).

Busck, J.

Carlson, R. R.

Christnacher, F.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, A. Matwyschuk, and D. Monnin, presented at the Méthodes et Techniques Optiques pour l'lndustrie, Mulhouse, France, 2006.

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June 14-16, 2006.

F. Christnacher, Y. Lutz, and D. Monnin, presented at the OPTRO 2005, Paris, France, 2005.

Devitt, N.

R. G. Digger, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halfort, and K. J. Barnard, Opt. Eng. 43, 738 (2003).

Digger, R. G.

R. G. Digger, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halfort, and K. J. Barnard, Opt. Eng. 43, 738 (2003).

Espinola, R. L.

Fouche, D. G.

Halford, C. E.

Halfort, C.

R. G. Digger, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halfort, and K. J. Barnard, Opt. Eng. 43, 738 (2003).

Heinrich, R. M.

Heiselberg, H.

Jacobs, E. L.

Kocher, D. G.

Laurenzis, M.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, A. Matwyschuk, and D. Monnin, presented at the Méthodes et Techniques Optiques pour l'lndustrie, Mulhouse, France, 2006.

Lutz, Y.

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June 14-16, 2006.

F. Christnacher, Y. Lutz, and D. Monnin, presented at the OPTRO 2005, Paris, France, 2005.

Matwyschuk, A.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, A. Matwyschuk, and D. Monnin, presented at the Méthodes et Techniques Optiques pour l'lndustrie, Mulhouse, France, 2006.

Monnin, D.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, A. Matwyschuk, and D. Monnin, presented at the Méthodes et Techniques Optiques pour l'lndustrie, Mulhouse, France, 2006.

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June 14-16, 2006.

F. Christnacher, Y. Lutz, and D. Monnin, presented at the OPTRO 2005, Paris, France, 2005.

Mooney, J.

O'Brien, M. E.

Player, B. E.

Schneider, A. L.

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June 14-16, 2006.

Tofsted, D. H.

Vollmerhausen, R.

Vollmerhausen, R. H.

R. G. Digger, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halfort, and K. J. Barnard, Opt. Eng. 43, 738 (2003).

Willard, B. C.

Zayhowski, J. J.

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Eng.

P. Andersson, Opt. Eng. 45, 034301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Digger, R. H. Vollmerhausen, N. Devitt, C. Halfort, and K. J. Barnard, Opt. Eng. 43, 738 (2003).

J. Busck, Opt. Eng. 44, 116001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

D. Monnin, A. L. Schneider, F. Christnacher, and Y. Lutz, presented at the 3rd International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission, 3DPVT 2006, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA, June 14-16, 2006.

F. Christnacher, Y. Lutz, and D. Monnin, presented at the OPTRO 2005, Paris, France, 2005.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, A. Matwyschuk, and D. Monnin, presented at the Méthodes et Techniques Optiques pour l'lndustrie, Mulhouse, France, 2006.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gated viewing active imaging is based on synchronization of illumination ( τ p l s ) and image sensor gate ( τ e x p ) . Information is recorded only from a distance due to the photon time-of-flight ( τ D ) . The sensor signal is a convolution of the temporal behavior of the illumination intensity and the sensor gate [3, 4, 5].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

3D reconstruction with superresolution can be calculated from a sequence of gated viewing images with overlapping intensity profiles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gated viewing images recorded for superresolution 3D scene reconstruction. A laser pulse width of τ p l s = 2 μ s and an exposure time of τ e x p = 4 μ s were applied to cover a depth of 900 m at (a) z 01 = 650 m , (b) z 02 = 950 m , and (c) z 03 = 1250 m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated distances of black-and-white targets of image I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 compared with real target distances.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D scene information: (a) calculated depth map, (b) data representation as virtual 3D scene reconstruction.

Equations (3)

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Δ z s c a n = ( z 2 z 2 ) 1 2 c 2 ( σ Δ τ s t p ) 1 2 .
z ¯ = z 0 , i + I r , i + 1 I p , i Δ z r , i + 1 ,
z ¯ = z 0 , i + ( 1 I f , i 1 I p , i ) Δ z f , i 1 .

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