Abstract

We report on a far above saturation absorption imaging technique to investigate the characteristics of dense packets of ultracold atoms. The transparency of the cloud is controlled by the incident light intensity as a result of the nonlinear response of the atoms to the probe beam. We detail our experimental procedure to calibrate the imaging system for reliable quantitative measurements and demonstrate the use of this technique to extract the profile and its spatial extent of an optically thick atomic cloud.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Petrich, M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, and E. A. Cornell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1332 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Marshall T. DePue, S. Luckman Winoto, D. J. Han, and David S. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 180, 73 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Vengalatorre, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011602 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", M.Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds. (IOS Press, 1999) and references therein.
  8. S. Kadlecek, J. Sebby, R. Newell, and T. G. Walker, Opt. Lett. 26, 137 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vengalatorre, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Marshall T. DePue, S. Luckman Winoto, D. J. Han, and David S. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 180, 73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", M.Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds. (IOS Press, 1999) and references therein.

1995 (1)

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Anderson, M. H.

Conroy, R. S.

M. Vengalatorre, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, C. J.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

Dalibard, J.

T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DePue, Marshall T.

Marshall T. DePue, S. Luckman Winoto, D. J. Han, and David S. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 180, 73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", M.Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds. (IOS Press, 1999) and references therein.

Edwards, N. H.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

Foot, C. J.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guéry-Odelin, D.

T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günter, K. J.

T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, D. J.

Marshall T. DePue, S. Luckman Winoto, D. J. Han, and David S. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 180, 73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kadlecek, S.

Ketterle, W.

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", M.Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds. (IOS Press, 1999) and references therein.

Kinoshita, T.

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lahaye, T.

T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luckman Winoto, S.

Marshall T. DePue, S. Luckman Winoto, D. J. Han, and David S. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 180, 73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Newell, R.

Perrin, H.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrich, W.

Prentiss, M. G.

M. Vengalatorre, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sebby, J.

Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", M.Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds. (IOS Press, 1999) and references therein.

Steane, A. M.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stringari, S.

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", M.Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds. (IOS Press, 1999) and references therein.

Szriftgiser, P.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townsend, C. G.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengalatorre, M.

M. Vengalatorre, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vogels, J. M.

T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, T. G.

Wang, Z.

T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, D. S.

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, David S.

Marshall T. DePue, S. Luckman Winoto, D. J. Han, and David S. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 180, 73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, T.

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", M.Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds. (IOS Press, 1999) and references therein.

Zetie, K. P.

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Marshall T. DePue, S. Luckman Winoto, D. J. Han, and David S. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 180, 73 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. G. Townsend, N. H. Edwards, C. J. Cooper, K. P. Zetie, C. J. Foot, A. M. Steane, P. Szriftgiser, H. Perrin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. A 52, 1423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kinoshita, T. Wenger, and D. S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. A 71, 011602 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. Lahaye, J. M. Vogels, K. J. Günter, Z. Wang, J. Dalibard, and D. Guéry-Odelin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vengalatorre, R. S. Conroy, and M. G. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Ketterle, D. S. Durfee, and D. M. Stamper-Kurn, Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", M.Inguscio, S. Stringari, and C. E. Wieman, eds. (IOS Press, 1999) and references therein.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two images with the cross section marked taken at the dashed line position of a dense elongated cloud prepared in the same conditions. The transverse profile is given by the dimensionless function f ( x , y ; α * ) α * , and the dotted line corresponds to the value 3. (a) Low-intensity absorption imaging. Almost all the light is absorbed in the center of the cloud. The limited dynamic range prohibits the measurement of a too high optical depth. (b) High-intensity absorption imaging. Only the second method shows that the profile has a double structure, with an rms size for the central peak of 300 μ m , corresponding for this example to a peak atomic density 4 ( ± 1 ) × 10 10 atoms cm 3 and max ( o d 0 ) 9 . The two methods coincide in the low optical depth region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cloud is imaged using different probe intensities (from I 0 sat 15 to 15 I 0 sat ). For each image, the maximum optical depth of the cloud o d ( α ) , deduced from a Gaussian fit, is calculated with several values of the unknown parameter α using the function f. The plot represents o d ( α ) as a function of the incoming intensity. The standard deviation Δ ( o d ) of each set of data points (see inset) exhibits a clear minimum as a function of the parameter α. The minimum of Δ ( o d ) gives α * = 2.12 ± 0.1 .

Equations (3)

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d I d z = n σ 0 α * 1 1 + I I eff sat I n σ ( I ) I ,
o d 0 ( x , y ) σ 0 n ( x , y , z ) d z = f ( x , y ; α * ) ,
f ( x , y ; α * ) = α * ln ( I f ( x , y ) I i ( x , y ) ) + I i ( x , y ) I f ( x , y ) I 0 sat .

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