Abstract

A novel Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a fiber multimode interference structure combined with a long-period fiber grating (LPG) is proposed. The multimode interference is achieved through the use of a MMF section spliced between two single-mode fibers, with a length adjusted to couple a fraction of light into the cladding modes. A LPG placed after the MMF couples light back into the fiber core, completing the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. This novel configuration was demonstrated as a bending sensor.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Frazão, R. Falate, J. L. Fabris, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, and F. M. Araújo, Opt. Lett. 31, 2960 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Kawano and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 5, pp. 165-230.
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kakiuchida, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43L 743(2004).
  8. G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos, and H. M. Salgado, Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 245 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, and X. Tao, Proc. SPIE 3330, 284 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, Opt. Commun. 258, 159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos, and H. M. Salgado, Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Kakiuchida, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43L 743(2004).

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Kawano and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 5, pp. 165-230.
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

X. J. Gu, Opt. Lett. 23, 509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, and X. Tao, Proc. SPIE 3330, 284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, F. M.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J. L.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, Opt. Commun. 258, 159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, Opt. Commun. 258, 159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, Opt. Commun. 258, 159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, W.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, and X. Tao, Proc. SPIE 3330, 284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fabris, J. L.

Falate, R.

Ferreira, L. A.

Frazão, O.

Gu, X. J.

Ikushima, and A. J.

H. Kakiuchida, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43L 743(2004).

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kakiuchida, H.

H. Kakiuchida, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43L 743(2004).

Kawano, K.

K. Kawano and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 5, pp. 165-230.
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kitoh, T.

K. Kawano and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 5, pp. 165-230.
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, and X. Tao, Proc. SPIE 3330, 284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marques, P. V. S.

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos, and H. M. Salgado, Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rego, G.

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos, and H. M. Salgado, Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saito, K.

H. Kakiuchida, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43L 743(2004).

Salgado, H. M.

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos, and H. M. Salgado, Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, R. Falate, J. L. Fabris, J. L. Santos, L. A. Ferreira, and F. M. Araújo, Opt. Lett. 31, 2960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos, and H. M. Salgado, Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, Opt. Commun. 258, 159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, Opt. Commun. 258, 159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, and X. Tao, Proc. SPIE 3330, 284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X.

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, and X. Tao, Proc. SPIE 3330, 284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wentworth, R. H.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Youngquist, R. C.

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

G. Rego, P. V. S. Marques, J. L. Santos, and H. M. Salgado, Fiber Integr. Opt. 24, 245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brooks, R. H. Wentworth, R. C. Youngquist, M. Tur, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1062 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

H. Kakiuchida, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43L 743(2004).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Dong, L. Su, P. Shum, Y. Chung, and C. C. Chan, Opt. Commun. 258, 159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Du, H. Tam, M. Liu, and X. Tao, Proc. SPIE 3330, 284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Kawano and T. Kitoh, Introduction to Optical Waveguide Analysis (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 5, pp. 165-230.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, intensity distribution of electric field on the xz plane; right, coupling overlap integral between the calculated field at a given MMF length and the input field for the simulation (SMF-28 fundamental mode). Inset, mode profile coupled into the output SMF-28 for three different MMF lengths: (a) no coupling ( z 27.7 mm ) , (b) about 50% coupling ( z 32 mm ) , (c) about 70% coupling ( z 38.5 mm ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MMI-LPG geometry and the experimental setup for bend measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral response of the MMI-LPG interferometer tailored by the source spectral distribution. Inset, normalized transmission spectra of the MMI-LPG interferometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the phase of the MMI-LPG interferometer and the curvature radius. Inset, dependence of the interferometric phase on the curvature ( 1 R ) .

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