Abstract

We transfer an optical frequency over 251 km of optical fiber with a residual instability of 6×10−19 at 100 s. This instability and the associated timing jitter are limited fundamentally by the noise on the optical fiber and the link length. We give a simple expression for calculating the achievable instability and jitter over a fiber link. Transfer of optical stability over this long distance requires a highly coherent optical source, provided here by a cw fiber laser locked to a high finesse optical cavity. A sufficient optical carrier signal is delivered to the remote fiber end by incorporating two-way, in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to balance the 62 dB link loss.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
  2. G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
  3. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).
  6. L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994).
  7. J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007).
  9. S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.
  10. S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
  11. B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, Appl. Opt. 45, 8491 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).
  13. W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

2007

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007).

2006

B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, Appl. Opt. 45, 8491 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

1994

1992

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

1988

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).

Amy-Klein, A.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J.

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

Bergquist, J. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

Bize, S.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, C.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

Clarion, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

Coq, Y. L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

Daussy, C.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).

Diddams, S. A.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Feder, K. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

Foreman, S.

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

Grosche, G.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

Hall, J. L.

Hollberg, L. W.

Holman, K. W.

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Jungner, P.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).

Kitching, J.

Lemonde, P.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

Lipphardt, B.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

Lopez, O.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorini, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

Lours, M.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).

Ma, L. S.

Ma, L.-S.

McClelland, D. E.

McFerran, J. J.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).

Miranda, M. H. G. d.

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Narbonneau, F.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007).

Nicholson, J. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

Oates, C. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).

Peng, J.-L.

Quraishi, Q.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

Robertsson, L.

Santarelli, G.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

Sheard, B. S.

Stalnaker, J. E.

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Swann, W. C.

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007).

Westbrook, P. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

Wineland, D. J.

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994).

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Photonics

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

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