Abstract

Femtosecond, subablation threshold photomodification of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) at 387nm is explored to enable fabrication of optical components. Volatile fragment analysis (thermal desorption gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) and molecular weight distribution monitoring (size exclusion chromatography) suggest photochemical modification, involving direct cleavage of the polymer backbone and propagation via chain unzipping under formation of monomers, similar to the pyrolytic degradation of PMMA. Waveguides were produced in undoped, clinical-grade PMMA, showing an increased refractive index in the laser focal region (Δnmax=4×103).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1840 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

C. Wochnowski, M. A. Shams Eldin, and S. Metev, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 88, 252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, J. Opt. A 7, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Küper, S. Modaressi, and M. Stuke, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blanchet, G. B.

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, J. Opt. A 7, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cotts, P.

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. R.

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Küper, S.

S. Küper, S. Modaressi, and M. Stuke, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liggat, J.

J. Liggat, in Polymer Handbook, 4th ed., J.Brandrup, E.H.Immergut, E.A.Grulke, A.Abe, and D.R.Bloch, ed. (Wiley, 2005), II/456.

Lopez, C.

Metev, S.

C. Wochnowski, M. A. Shams Eldin, and S. Metev, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 88, 252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, J. Opt. A 7, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meteva, K.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, J. Opt. A 7, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, J. Opt. A 7, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Modaressi, S.

S. Küper, S. Modaressi, and M. Stuke, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Shams Eldin, M. A.

C. Wochnowski, M. A. Shams Eldin, and S. Metev, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 88, 252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sowa, S.

Stuke, M.

S. Küper, S. Modaressi, and M. Stuke, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, J. Opt. A 7, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

Torikai, A.

A. Torikai, in Handbook of Polymer Degradation, A.Hamidi and S.H.Hamid, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2000), pp. 573-604.

Watanabe, W.

Wochnowski, C.

C. Wochnowski, M. A. Shams Eldin, and S. Metev, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 88, 252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, J. Opt. A 7, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. B. Blanchet, P. Cotts, and C. R. Fincher, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2975 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

C. Wochnowski, Y. Cheng, K. Meteva, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, and S. Metev, J. Opt. A 7, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. Küper, S. Modaressi, and M. Stuke, J. Phys. Chem. 94, 7514 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polym. Degrad. Stab. (1)

C. Wochnowski, M. A. Shams Eldin, and S. Metev, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 88, 252 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Torikai, in Handbook of Polymer Degradation, A.Hamidi and S.H.Hamid, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2000), pp. 573-604.

J. Liggat, in Polymer Handbook, 4th ed., J.Brandrup, E.H.Immergut, E.A.Grulke, A.Abe, and D.R.Bloch, ed. (Wiley, 2005), II/456.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Molecular weight distribution of PMMA ( Φ = 0.31 J cm 2 ; N, number of over scans). (b) Polydispersity and concentration ratio (known to measured) for increasing fluence Φ and number of over scans N, respectively (total fluence Φ tot = Φ N ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chromatogram section of volatile analysis (all ions and selected ions 41, 55, 69, and 85 tracing MMA).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveguide cross section ( D = 2 mm apertured, Φ = 0.35 J cm 2 , s = 2 mm s ) and profile of a refractive index structure in clinical-grade PMMA ( 633 nm , 23°C).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UV–visible transmission of commercial- and clinical-grade PMMA before and after fs laser treatment.

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