Abstract

We demonstrate that ultrashort pulse filamentation in liquids with strong Raman gain leads to the spontaneous formation of nonlinear X waves at a Raman-shifted wavelength. We measured as much as 75% energy conversion efficiency into a Raman X wave in ethanol starting from 1ps pulses due to the group velocity matching between the pump and Raman X pulses. Large Raman gain of a weak seed signal was observed in water, associated with a strong spatiotemporal transformation of the seed into an X wave.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Insitute of Physics, 1992).
  2. J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 19 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Sonajalg and P. Saari, Opt. Lett. 21, 1162 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Porras, Opt. Lett. 26, 1364 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, Opt. Commun. 126, 308 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Express 13, 10729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Lewis and J. T. Knudtson, Appl. Opt. 22, 3371 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. G. Van Engen, S. A. Diddams, and T. S. Clement, Appl. Opt. 37, 5679 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1989).

2006 (4)

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, Opt. Commun. 126, 308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Sonajalg and P. Saari, Opt. Lett. 21, 1162 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1989).

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Insitute of Physics, 1992).

Akozbek, N.

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andre, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biegert, J.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bragheri, F.

Bramati, A.

Chin, S. L.

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chirkin, A. S.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Insitute of Physics, 1992).

Clement, T. S.

Couairon, A.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

Di Trapani, P.

Di Trapani, P. A.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

Dubietis, A.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 862 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaizauskas, E.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knudtson, J. T.

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Express 13, 10729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornelis, W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koser, J.

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kucinskas, E.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. A.

Liberale, C.

Liu, W.

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matijosius, A.

Mejean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minardi, S.

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Express 13, 10729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

Penzkofer, A.

M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, Opt. Commun. 126, 308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Porras, M.

Porras, M. A.

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rheims, J.

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saari, P.

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonajalg, H.

Tamosauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Theberge, F.

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toma, T.

Van Engen, A. G.

Vysloukh, V. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Insitute of Physics, 1992).

Watanabe, W.

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittmann, M.

M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, Opt. Commun. 126, 308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wriedt, T.

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Express 13, 10729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Dubietis, A. Couairon, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, D. Faccio, and P. A. Di Trapani, Appl. Phys. B 84, 439 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Mod. Opt. 53, 75 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Rheims, J. Koser, and T. Wriedt, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 601 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Wittmann and A. Penzkofer, Opt. Commun. 126, 308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, W. Liu, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Faccio, M. A. Porras, A. Dubietis, F. Bragheri, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 193901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (American Insitute of Physics, 1992).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1989).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimentally measured ( θ , λ ) spectrum of a filament in 5 cm of ethanol with E I I I = 2.5 μ J . The solid (dashed) curve indicates the leading (trailing) pump X waves, and the dotted curve indicates the Raman X-pulse spectrum. (b) Measured Raman gain as a function of the pump energy. (c) Measured near-field fluence profile of the Raman pulse and (d) of the filament.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured ( θ , λ ) spectrum of a seeded filament in 3 cm of water with relative delays of (a) Δ t = 200 fs and (b) Δ t = + 200 fs .

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