Abstract

We demonstrate strongly nondegenerate optical continuous-wave parametric oscillations in crystalline whispering gallery mode resonators fabricated from LiNbO3. The required phase matching is achieved by geometrical confinement of the modes in the resonator.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, and B. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Gelbwasch, R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, and J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 258 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

J. Gelbwasch, R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, and J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 258 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, and B. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Carmon, T.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelbwasch, J.

J. Gelbwasch, R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, and J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 258 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, and B. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Karino, K.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maleki, L.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, Lute

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsko, A. B.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohageg, M.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R. H.

J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, and B. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Gelbwasch, R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, and J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 258 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Purhoff, H. E.

J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, and B. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Puthoff, H. E.

J. Gelbwasch, R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, and J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 258 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rokhsari, H.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savchenkov, A. A.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shikata, J.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sussman, S. S.

J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, and B. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yarborough, J. M.

J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, and B. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Gelbwasch, R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, and J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 258 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, and B. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Gelbwasch, R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, and J. M. Yarborough, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 258 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Commun. 265, 33 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and Lute Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 043903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, M. Mohageg, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The pump photon with wave vector k ( p ) scatters to signal photon k ( s ) and idler photon k ( i ) . The idler photon is not necessarily localized in a WGM. The pump photon has TM polarization; i.e., its electric field is orthogonal to the axis of the resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stokes sidebands generated in resonators I and resonator III illuminated with 1559 nm light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stokes sidebands generated in resonator (a) I and (b) II, illuminated with 1319 nm light. The frequency shift of the signal wave is bigger in the thinner resonator. The 13.7 GHz splitting between the signal modes is less than the free spectral range of the resonator.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H = g ( a s a i a p + a p a s a i ) ,
a ̇ ( p ) = γ ( p ) a ( p ) i g a ( s ) a ( i ) + F ,
a ̇ ( s ) = γ ( s ) a ( s ) i g a ( i ) a ( p ) ,
a ̇ ( i ) = γ ( i ) a ( i ) i g a ( i ) a ( p ) ,
a s 2 = γ ( i ) γ ( p ) g 2 ( g γ ( i ) γ ( s ) F γ ( p ) 1 ) ,
γ ( s ) a ( s ) 2 = γ ( i ) a ( i ) 2 ,
P ( p ) 2 ω ( p ) [ χ ( 2 ) ] 2 V o 2 l ϵ ( l ) V ( l ) 4 π Q ( l ) .

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