Abstract

We studied the amplitude and phase noise suppression properties of an all-optical regenerator for differential phase-shift keying data. A detailed analytical investigation is performed and compared with numerical simulations for different working points. The results show that both amplitude and phase can be regenerated. However, simultaneous amplitude and phase noise suppression is possible only if the phase degradation is stronger than the amplitude degradation, for instance, due to nonlinear phase noise.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115 (2005).
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  2. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 15, 1351 (1990).
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  5. P. Johannisson, G. Adolfsson, and M. Karlsson, Opt. Lett. 31, 1387 (2006).
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  8. B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

2006

2005

1990

Adolfsson, G.

P. Johannisson, G. Adolfsson, and M. Karlsson, Opt. Lett. 31, 1387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, A.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Bornholdt, C.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Buhl, L.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Cabot, S.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Cappuzzo, M.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Chen, Y. F.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Croussore, K.

Devgan, P.

Dinu, M.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Dorrer, C.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Freude, W.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Giles, C. R.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gomez, L.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Gordon, J. P.

Grigoryan, V. S.

Han, Y.

Jacques, J.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Johannisson, P.

P. Johannisson, G. Adolfsson, and M. Karlsson, Opt. Lett. 31, 1387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Karlsson, M.

P. Johannisson, G. Adolfsson, and M. Karlsson, Opt. Lett. 31, 1387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

Kim, I.

Kumar, P.

Lasri, J.

Leuthold, J.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Li, G.

Liu, X.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Marculescu, A.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Matsumoto, M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Neilson, D. T.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Patel, S.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Rasras, M.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Sartorius, B.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Schlak, M.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Schmidt, Ch.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Shin, M.

Slovak, J.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Tsadka, S.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Vorreau, P.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

Winzer, P. J.

Wong-Foy, A.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

Zhang, L.

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

P. Johannisson, G. Adolfsson, and M. Karlsson, Opt. Lett. 31, 1387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 15, 1351 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, A. Bhardwaj, S. Cabot, M. Dinu, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. F. Chen, S. Patel, D. T. Neilson, J. Jacques, and C. R. Giles, in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC) 2005 (IEEE, 2005), paper Th 4.3.3.

B. Sartorius, C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak, M. Schlak, Ch. Schmidt, A. Marculescu, P. Vorreau, S. Tsadka, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OWS6.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General regenerator setup: a delay-line interferometer (DLI) and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with two all-optical phase modulators (PMs), a clock recovery unit (CR), and an optical bandpass filter (OBP).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Input phase noise versus output phase noise for σ A in = 0.05 . (b) Input amplitude noise versus output phase noise for σ Ph in = 0.1 . (c) Input phase noise versus output amplitude noise for σ A in = 0.05 . The dashed and solid curves represent analytical and numerical results, respectively. The dashed-dotted lines show the border of the regeneration regime of either amplitude or phase; gray areas mark the simultaneous regeneration regime.

Equations (8)

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ϑ n up = D n × ϑ 0 ϑ n low = D ¯ n × ϑ 0 ,
E n out = A c sin ( ϑ n up ϑ n low 2 ) exp [ i ( ϑ n up + ϑ n low 2 ) ] ,
E n up 2 = A 0 2 cos 2 ( Δ ψ n ) ( 1 + Δ A ̂ n ) + 1 4 Δ A n 2 + 1 4 Δ A n + 1 2 + 1 2 Δ A n Δ A n + 1 cos ( 2 Δ ψ n ) ,
E n low 2 = A 0 2 sin 2 ( Δ ψ n ) ( 1 + Δ A ̂ n ) + 1 4 Δ A n 2 + 1 4 Δ A n + 1 2 1 2 Δ A n Δ A n + 1 cos ( 2 Δ ψ n ) ,
ϑ n up + ϑ n low ϑ 0 ( 1 + Δ A ̂ n ) ,
ϑ n up ϑ n low ϑ 0 ( 1 + Δ A ̂ n ) cos ( 2 Δ ψ n ) ,
E n out = A c sin [ ϑ 0 2 cos ( 2 Δ ψ n ) ( 1 + Δ A ̂ n ) ]
× exp [ i ϑ 0 2 ( 1 + Δ A ̂ n ) ] .

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