Abstract

A metal–metal waveguide quantum cascade laser with an abutted silicon hyperhemispherical lens is demonstrated at 4.1THz. The device produced 145mW of peak pulsed power at 5K with a wall-plug power efficiency of 0.7%, lasing up to a maximum operating temperature of 160K. The far-field beam pattern has a full width at half-maximum value of 4.8° in the H plane. The same device produced 26mW of peak power using a Winston cone instead of a lens, lasing up to 165K. The large increase in output power is mainly attributed to an increase in collection efficiency.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

2006 (5)

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Opt. Express 14, 11672 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Electron. Lett. 42, 89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. L. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 173904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. Faist, presented at the Optical Terahertz Science and Technology Topical Meeting, Orlando, Fla., USA, March 18-21, 2007.

Q. Hu, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, J. L. Reno, H. C. Liu, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Future Trends in Microelectronics, S.Luryi, J.M.Xu, and A.Zaslavsky, eds. (Wiley, 2007), pp. 347-358.

D. B. Rutledge, D. P. Neikirk, and D. P. Kasilingam, in Infrared and Millimeter-Waves Vol. 10, K.J.Button, ed. (Academic, 1983), pp. 1-90.

S. Kumar, "Development of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to be published in 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Metal–metal THz quantum-cascade laser (QCL) with abutted HRSi spacer and lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light versus current: lens-coupled and Winston cone-coupled devices. Insets: top, J th versus temperature; bottom, typical spectra of the device with a lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top row, collection angle ( β ) : (a) bare facet, (b) lens-coupled. Middle row, calculated beam pattern: bare facet [(a), collected power circled], lens-coupled [(b) into HRSi, uncollected power blackened]. Bottom row, collection efficiency of the bare facet for even lateral modes; the expected relative improvement of the lens-coupled facet is shown in brackets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field ( 30 cm ) beam pattern (circles) and cross section of the beam image at 6 cm (inset, I = 1.47 A ).

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