Abstract

A technique for increasing the ranging depth in optical frequency domain imaging utilizing frequency encoding is presented. Ranging depth is enhanced by using two interferometer reference arms with different path lengths and independent modulation frequencies (25 and 50MHz). With this configuration, the sensitivity decreases by 6dB over a depth range of 7mm, approximately a threefold improvement over the conventional optical frequency domain imaging technique. We demonstrate that the reference arm frequency separation, tuning speed, center wavelength, and coherence instantaneous length determine the signal-to-cross-talk ratio.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (3)

S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Oh, A. Desjardins, M. Suter, R. Chan, J. Evans, I. Jang, N. Nishioka, J. de Boer, and B. Bouma, Nat. Med. 12, 1429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vakoc, S. Yun, G. Tearney, and B. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 31, 362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (5)

2002 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. Kingsley and D. Davies, Electron. Lett. 21, 434 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the depth and frequency-encoding technique. FS, acousto-optic frequency shifter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Coherence function widening causes SCR degradation. (b) Minimum SCR as a function of frequency spacing to 6 dB coherence function bandwidth ratio.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the OFDI system. Col, collimator; PC, polarization controller; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; PD, photodetector; FS, acousto-optic frequency shifter; PBS, polarization beam splitter; DAQ, data acquisition board.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured system sensitivity, defined as the maximum attenuation producing a signal power equal to the noise power, for a configuration using one frequency shifter (squares, solid curve) and another using two frequency shifters (circles, solid curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OFDI image of human aorta tissue ex vivo obtained with (a) frequency shift 25 MHz and (b) frequency shifts 25 and 50 MHz . Images consist of 1264 vertical × 500 transverse pixels and extend over a transverse distance of 9.0 mm . The depth and frequency-encoding technique increased the 6 dB ranging depth to 7 mm .

Equations (3)

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SCR min ( i ) = { [ 1 + j = 1 N S j ( f ) S i ( f ) ] 2 1 } 1 , for i j ,
S i ( f ) exp { 4 ln ( 2 ) [ ( f f i ) BW ] 2 } ,
BW = 2 f a L C Δ λ λ 0 2 ,

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