Abstract

The band-edge excitonic transitions of vertically aligned and tilted ZnO nanorods on sapphire have been characterized using thermoreflectance (TR) measurements in the temperature range between 30 and 300K. The TR spectra of the nanorods with largely {0001} planes show considerable difference in energy and line shape with respect to those of the other sample with largely side planes of {101¯0}. The TR result at each temperature clearly indicates the band-edge excitons (A, B, and C) measured from the largely {0001} planes of the rods are lower in energy with respect to those obtained from the other sample dominated by the side planes of {101¯0}. Optical anisotropy in the transition amplitudes of the TR spectra for the vertically aligned and tilted ZnO nanorods is observed. The TR is shown to be very sensitive to the detection of the ZnO nanorods’ alignment.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007

C. Xu, J. Chun, D. E. Kim, J. J. Kim, B. Chon, and T. Joo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 083113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Chang, C. T. Chien, C. W. Chen, T. Y. Chu, H. H. Chiang, C. H. Ku, J. J. Wu, C. S. Lin, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. H. Ho, Y. H. Liang, and Y. J. Chen, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, G312 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chen, K. H. Chen, C. H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L. C. Chen, J. J. Wu, H. I. Wen, and W. F. Pong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. C. Wang, C. P. Liu, J. L. Huang, S. J. Chen, Y. K. Tseng, and S. C. Kung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 013110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, S. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. H. Ho, H. W. Lee, and Z. H. Cheng, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1098 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. R10, 275 (1993).

1968

W. Y. Liang and A. D. Yoffe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 59 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rowe, M. Cardona, and F. H. Pollak, Solid State Commun. 6, 239 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Wang, C. P. Liu, J. L. Huang, S. J. Chen, Y. K. Tseng, and S. C. Kung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 013110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, J. Chun, D. E. Kim, J. J. Kim, B. Chon, and T. Joo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 083113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chen, K. H. Chen, C. H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L. C. Chen, J. J. Wu, H. I. Wen, and W. F. Pong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

C. H. Ho, Y. H. Liang, and Y. J. Chen, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, G312 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. S. Chang, C. T. Chien, C. W. Chen, T. Y. Chu, H. H. Chiang, C. H. Ku, J. J. Wu, C. S. Lin, L. C. Chen, and K. H. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033502 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital.

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. R10, 275 (1993).

Phys. Rev. B

C. H. Ho, S. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. Y. Liang and A. D. Yoffe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 59 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. H. Ho, H. W. Lee, and Z. H. Cheng, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1098 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

J. E. Rowe, M. Cardona, and F. H. Pollak, Solid State Commun. 6, 239 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. E. Aspnes, in Handbook on Semiconductors, M.Balkanski, ed. (North-Holland, 1980).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images of ZnO nanorods with different substrate temperatures of (a) 350 ° C grown (sample I) and (b) 400 ° C grown (sample II). The light reflections from the vertically aligned or the titled hexagonal rods are also shown. (c) X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-grown vertical and titled ZnO nanorods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TR and PL spectra of the ZnO nanorods in samples I and II at 30 K .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature-dependent TR spectra of (a) sample I and (b) sample II between 30 and 300 K .

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