Abstract

Light scattering measurements made at visible wavelengths have the ability to quantify subcellular morphology. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is associated with distinct morphological signatures such as mitochondrial swelling and nuclear condensation as well as characteristic biochemical signaling pathways, many of which are initiated by the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. In this Letter, we examine the time course of mitochondrial morphology changes as reported by light scattering and the subcellular location of cytochrome c measured by immunofluorescence microscopy in response to intracellular cell death signaling induced by photodynamic damage to lysosomes. We report that within this system, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol occurs approximately simultaneously with mitochondrial-morphology-induced light scattering changes, providing further evidence that light scattering has the potential to play an important role in future studies of cell death biology.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. N. N. Boustany, R. Drezek, and N. V. Thakor, Biophys. J. 83, 1691 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O'Connell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and L. T. Perelman, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. N. Boustany, Y. C. Tsai, B. Pfister, W. M. Joiner, G. A. Oyler, and N. V. Thakor, Biophys. J. 87, 4163 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, Biophys. J. 88, 2929 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. D. Wilson and T. H. Foster, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030503 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Lam, N. L. Oleinick, and A. L. Nieminen, J. Biol. Chem. 276, 47379 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. J. Reiners, Jr., J. A. Caruso, P. Mathieu, B. Chelladurai, X. M. Yin, and D. Kessel, Cell Death Differ 9, 934 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, Appl. Opt. 33, 7206 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. Wilson and T. H. Foster, Opt. Lett. 30, 2442 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).
  11. N. N. Danial and S. J. Korsmeyer, Cell 116, 205 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. W. Lin, J. R. Shulok, S. D. Kirley, C. M. Bachelder, T. J. Flotte, M. E. Sherwood, L. Cincotta, and J. W. Foley, Photochem. Photobiol. 58, 81 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. D. Wilson and T. H. Foster, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O'Connell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and L. T. Perelman, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, Biophys. J. 88, 2929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Wilson and T. H. Foster, Opt. Lett. 30, 2442 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

N. N. Danial and S. J. Korsmeyer, Cell 116, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Boustany, Y. C. Tsai, B. Pfister, W. M. Joiner, G. A. Oyler, and N. V. Thakor, Biophys. J. 87, 4163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

N. N. Boustany, R. Drezek, and N. V. Thakor, Biophys. J. 83, 1691 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Reiners, Jr., J. A. Caruso, P. Mathieu, B. Chelladurai, X. M. Yin, and D. Kessel, Cell Death Differ 9, 934 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Lam, N. L. Oleinick, and A. L. Nieminen, J. Biol. Chem. 276, 47379 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

C. W. Lin, J. R. Shulok, S. D. Kirley, C. M. Bachelder, T. J. Flotte, M. E. Sherwood, L. Cincotta, and J. W. Foley, Photochem. Photobiol. 58, 81 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (3)

N. N. Boustany, R. Drezek, and N. V. Thakor, Biophys. J. 83, 1691 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Boustany, Y. C. Tsai, B. Pfister, W. M. Joiner, G. A. Oyler, and N. V. Thakor, Biophys. J. 87, 4163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Wilson, C. E. Bigelow, D. J. Calkins, and T. H. Foster, Biophys. J. 88, 2929 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell (1)

N. N. Danial and S. J. Korsmeyer, Cell 116, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell Death Differ (1)

J. J. Reiners, Jr., J. A. Caruso, P. Mathieu, B. Chelladurai, X. M. Yin, and D. Kessel, Cell Death Differ 9, 934 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

M. Lam, N. L. Oleinick, and A. L. Nieminen, J. Biol. Chem. 276, 47379 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. D. Wilson and T. H. Foster, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 030503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Schuele, E. Vitkin, P. Huie, C. O'Connell-Rodwell, D. Palanker, and L. T. Perelman, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

C. W. Lin, J. R. Shulok, S. D. Kirley, C. M. Bachelder, T. J. Flotte, M. E. Sherwood, L. Cincotta, and J. W. Foley, Photochem. Photobiol. 58, 81 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

P. R. Bevington and D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Angularly-resolved light scattering data. A–C, Representative scattering data from intact cells sensitized with NPe6 (NPe6 Drug Control) versus cells sensitized and irradiated with either 0.5 or 1 J cm 2 at two time points. P values as quantified by the χ 2 test [10] show that scattering from cells 1 h after 1 J cm 2 was significantly different from control. D, A representative time course in the mitochondrial swelling parameter, α, for NPe6 control and 1 J cm 2 NPe6-PDT-treated cells.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results from cytochrome c imaging assay. A–F, Representative microscopic fields of FITC-labeled anti-cytochrome c at various time points captured at 60 × (scale bar = 10 μ m ). These time points represent pre-irradiation (A), and 0 (B), 30 (C), 60 (D) 90 (E), and 120 (F) min post-irradiation at 1 J cm 2 . G, The summary time course of cytochrome c release as quantified by this assay. The pre-irradiation percentage is denoted by a square symbol.

Metrics