Abstract

The generation of terahertz (THz) transients in photoconductive emitters has been studied by varying the spatial extent and density of the optically excited photocarriers in asymmetrically excited, biased low-temperature-grown GaAs antenna structures. We find a pronounced dependence of the THz pulse intensity and broadband (>6.0THz) spectral distribution on the pump excitation density and simulate this with a three-dimensional carrier dynamics model. We attribute the observed variation in THz emission to changes in the strength of the screening field.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Opt. Lett. 15, 323 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Uhd Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3117 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Piao, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 96 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, and S. Nakashima, Appl. Opt. 36, 7853 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235325 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Sano and T. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2748 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Z. Piao, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, and S. Nakashima, Appl. Opt. 36, 7853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

E. Sano and T. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2748 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Opt. Lett. 15, 323 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beere, H. E.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castro-Camus, E.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Citrin, D. S.

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corchia, A.

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Opt. Lett. 15, 323 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M. D.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Hvam, J. M.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

Jagadish, C.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M. B.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katzenellenbogen, N.

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

P. Uhd Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Keil, U. D.

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindelof, P. E.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lopata, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lyssenko, V. G.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

Morse, J. D.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, S.

Pedersen, J. E.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piao, Z.

Z. Piao, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

Z. Piao, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, and S. Nakashima, Appl. Opt. 36, 7853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sano, E.

E. Sano and T. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2748 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

E. Sano and T. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2748 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, C. B.

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

Z. Piao, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, and S. Nakashima, Appl. Opt. 36, 7853 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

P. Uhd Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Opt. Lett. 15, 323 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

N. Katzenellenbogen and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Sano and T. Shibata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2748 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Pedersen, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, P. Uhd Jepsen, S. R. Keiding, C. B. Sørensen, and P. E. Lindelof, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1265 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

U. D. Keil and D. R. Dykaar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

Z. Piao, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, Phys. Rev. B 65, 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, Phys. Rev. B 71, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. H. Linfield, H. E. Beere, and A. G. Davies, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Temporal THz waveforms measured with a 150 μ m thick ⟨110⟩ GaP electro-optic sensor for different laser spot sizes. Note that at smaller spot sizes, pronounced phonon oscillations are seen after the initial transients. (b) Fourier-transform amplitude spectra of the data shown in (a). Inset: schematic geometry of the electrodes used in the LT-GaAs photoconductive emitter. The circular spot indicates the position of the asymmetric laser excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Position of the THz amplitude maxima (left axis) and integrated spectral THz pulse power (right axis) as a function of spot size. The upper axis gives the corresponding optical fluence of the laser pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the FWHM of the simulated THz emission with the experiment, as a function of spot size. Inset: time dependence of the screening inside a photoconductive switch for two pump spot sizes. E int is the internal electric field at a position in the gap equivalent to the center of the laser spot, and the time it takes to reach a constant low value is a good indication of the time taken for photocarriers to screen the applied electric field. This screening time decreases from 0.35 ps for d = 124 μ m to 0.2 ps at d = 57 μ m . The screened electric field recovers at times greater than 0.4 ps because of the trapping of photoexcited carriers (a carrier lifetime of 3.8 ps was used in the simulation).

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