Abstract

Intensity thresholds for the onset of optical damage in α-phase proton-exchanged waveguides on undoped LiNbO3 have been increased from the substrate value to a factor 500 greater. This has been achieved by increasing the exchange time, which in turn increases the [Fe2+][Fe3+] ratio in the guide. Intensity thresholds have been measured with a single-beam configuration, while [Fe2+][Fe3+] ratios have been determined from decay measurements during optical erasure of photorefractive gratings. In heavily Fe-doped guides, thresholds are too small to be measured, but the dependence of the Fe2+ absorption on the exchange time appears similar to undoped samples.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Yu. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Rams and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 401 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Kip and M. Wesner, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 289-315.
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Caballero-Calero, A. Alcázar, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, and M. Carrascosa, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 43-82.
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Carrascosa and F. Agulló-López, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1369 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1412 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. de la Paliza, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2229 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Alcazar de Velasco, V. J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Appl. Phys. B 68, 989 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Peithmann, A. Wiebrock, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 68, 777 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Hodgson and F. Agulló-López, Solid State Commun. 64, 965 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, and A. I. Kuznetsov, Europhys. Lett. 4, 1055 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Phillips and D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 601 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. Caballero-Calero, A. Alcázar, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, and M. Carrascosa, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1412 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

K. Peithmann, A. Wiebrock, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 68, 777 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Alcazar de Velasco, V. J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Appl. Phys. B 68, 989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Yu. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Hodgson and F. Agulló-López, Solid State Commun. 64, 965 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, and A. I. Kuznetsov, Europhys. Lett. 4, 1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Carrascosa and F. Agulló-López, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1369 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. Phillips and D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 601 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Alcazar de Velasco, V. J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Appl. Phys. B 68, 989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Hodgson and F. Agulló-López, Solid State Commun. 64, 965 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrascosa and F. Agulló-López, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1369 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 43-82.
[CrossRef]

Alcázar, A.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. Alcázar, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, and M. Carrascosa, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alcazar de Velasco, A.

A. Alcazar de Velasco, V. J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Appl. Phys. B 68, 989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alcazar-de-Velasco, A.

J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aschiéri, P.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. O.

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Basun, S. A.

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

K. Peithmann, A. Wiebrock, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 68, 777 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caballero-Calero, O.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. Alcázar, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, and M. Carrascosa, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. Alcázar, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, and M. Carrascosa, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. de la Paliza, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1412 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Alcazar de Velasco, V. J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Appl. Phys. B 68, 989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, G. F.

F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 43-82.
[CrossRef]

Carnicero, J.

Carrascosa, M.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. Alcázar, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, and M. Carrascosa, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. de la Paliza, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1412 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Carrascosa and F. Agulló-López, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1369 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 43-82.
[CrossRef]

Chanvillard, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cook, G.

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de la Paliza, G.

de Micheli, M.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diéguez, E.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D. R.

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. A.

Yu. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

García-Cabañes, A.

O. Caballero-Calero, A. Alcázar, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, and M. Carrascosa, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. de la Paliza, J. Carnicero, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1412 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, E.

E. Hodgson and F. Agulló-López, Solid State Commun. 64, 965 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

D. Kip and M. Wesner, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 289-315.
[CrossRef]

Koppitz, J.

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, and A. I. Kuznetsov, Europhys. Lett. 4, 1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Korkishko, Yu. N.

Yu. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A. I.

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, and A. I. Kuznetsov, Europhys. Lett. 4, 1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R. J.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

López, F. J.

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, R. S.

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, A.

A. Méndez, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1412 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Müller, R.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nam, D. W.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peithmann, K.

K. Peithmann, A. Wiebrock, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 68, 777 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W.

W. Phillips and D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 601 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Rams and J. M. Cabrera, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rams, V. J.

A. Alcazar de Velasco, V. J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Appl. Phys. B 68, 989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, and A. I. Kuznetsov, Europhys. Lett. 4, 1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Siala, S.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

W. Phillips and D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 601 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Webjörn, J.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wesner, M.

D. Kip and M. Wesner, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 289-315.
[CrossRef]

Wiebrock, A.

K. Peithmann, A. Wiebrock, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 68, 777 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

J. M. Cabrera, J. Olivares, M. Carrascosa, J. Rams, R. Müller, and E. Diéguez, Adv. Phys. 45, 349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Alcazar de Velasco, V. J. Rams, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Appl. Phys. B 68, 989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Peithmann, A. Wiebrock, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 68, 777 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, E. Diéguez, F. J. López, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 624 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, and A. I. Kuznetsov, Europhys. Lett. 4, 1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Carrascosa and F. Agulló-López, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1369 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Yu. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

O. Caballero-Calero, A. Alcázar, A. García-Cabañes, J. M. Cabrera, and M. Carrascosa, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Basun, D. R. Evans, T. J. Bunning, S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, G. Cook, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

W. Phillips and D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 601 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Rams, A. Alcazar-de-Velasco, M. Carrascosa, J. M. Cabrera, and F. Agulló-López, Opt. Commun. 178, 211 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

E. Hodgson and F. Agulló-López, Solid State Commun. 64, 965 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. Agulló-López, G. F. Calvo, and M. Carrascosa, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 43-82.
[CrossRef]

D. Kip and M. Wesner, in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications, P.Günter and J.-P.Huignard, eds. (Springer, 2006), pp. 289-315.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plots of (undistorted) outcoupled versus incoupled intensities for α guides on undoped substrates to determine the threshold for the onset of optical damage (the scale for ticks is logarithmic, but is linear for labels). The PE time of each waveguide is indicated in the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

[ Fe 2 + ] [ Fe 3 + ] ratio of α-phase guides on undoped substrates (open circles, right-hand axis) and damage thresholds (filled squares, left-hand axis) obtained from Fig. 1, as a function of the exchange time. Continuous and dashed curves are only guides for the eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption coefficient at 633 nm (left-hand axis) and the associated [ Fe 2 + ] concentration (right-hand axis) as a function of the exchange time of heavily Fe-doped α-phase PE guides (filled circles), and the corresponding substrate (open squares). The curves are only guides for the eyes. Absorption of the untreated substrate is indicated by the horizontal line.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ 1 = μ e s ε ε 0 γ I h ν [ Fe 2 + ] [ Fe 3 + ] ,
E pv = L pv ( γ μ ) [ Fe 3 + ] ,

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