Abstract

We demonstrate high-speed all-optical switching via vertical excitation of an electron–hole plasma in an oxygen-ion implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator. Based on the plasma dispersion effect the spectral response of the device is rapidly modulated by photoinjection and subsequent recombination of charge carriers at artificially introduced fast recombination centers. At an implantation dose of 1×1012cm2 the carrier lifetime is reduced to 55ps, which facilitates optical switching of signal light in the 1.55μm wavelength range at modulation speeds larger than 5Gbitss.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L.Pavesi and G.Guillot, eds., Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach, Vol. 119 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
  4. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzonov, and L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 29, 2867 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Soref and B. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Lett. 12, 2774 (2004).
  8. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 30, 2891 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Liu and H. K. Tsang, Opt. Lett. 31, 1714 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. Haring Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 29, 2861 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Note here that Δt=0 is defined as the time delay of maximum wavelength shift.
  15. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 30, 2733 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 30, 2891 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 30, 2733 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref and B. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Barrios, C. A.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. Haring

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. Haring Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 29, 2861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, A. R.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.-C.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Lett. 12, 2774 (2004).

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Lett. 12, 2774 (2004).

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Frenkel, M. Y.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, L.

Grischkowsky, D.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henschel, W.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. Haring Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 29, 2861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Lett. 12, 2774 (2004).

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. Haring Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 29, 2861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Mönster, M.

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niehusmann, J.

Ouzonov, D. G.

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preble, S. F.

Raghunathan, V.

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, Opt. Lett. 12, 2774 (2004).

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

Smith, F. W.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Valdmanis, J. A.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vörckel, A.

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. Haring Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, and H. Kurz, Opt. Lett. 29, 2861 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wahlbrink, T.

Whitaker, J. F.

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frenkel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, and A. R. Calawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 921 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Other (2)

Note here that Δt=0 is defined as the time delay of maximum wavelength shift.

L.Pavesi and G.Guillot, eds., Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach, Vol. 119 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Micrograph of the investigated microring resonator after implantation. Transfer functions at the through and drop ports of the fabricated device are shown (b) after patterning and (c) after additional O + -ion implantation. Δ λ = λ λ 0 , with λ 0 the resonance wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized intensity plot of the time-resolved spectral response of the ion-implanted microring resonator at the drop channel after optical excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved shift of the peak resonance wavelength at the drop waveguide (squares). The gray solid line is an exponential fit to the data. The inset shows the normalized intensity at the drop waveguide on the resonance wavelength λ = 1566.81 nm .

Equations (1)

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S 21 2 = t 2 + t 2 τ 2 2 t 2 τ cos ϕ 1 + t 4 τ 2 2 t 2 τ cos ϕ

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