Abstract

A method for terahertz (THz) reflection spectroscopy is presented that utilizes direct contact between the backside of the pulsed emitter and the sample. Changes in the complex reflectivity of the emitter–sample interface are used to measure the spectrum. This method is especially useful for spectroscopy of liquid samples and soft materials. It simplifies the optical apparatus, has good sensitivity, and has capability for use in the construction of miniaturized THz probes. The problem of nonplanar wave fronts inside the emitter is discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11824 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Wang and D. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. W. Urban, Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy of Polymers: Theory and Practice (American Chemical Society, 1996).
  8. A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, M. Nĕmec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Uhd Jepsen and B. M. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 30, 29 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Fleischmann and H. Schopper, Zeitschr. Phys. 129, 285 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Bergmann and C. Schaefer, Optik (de Gruyter, 1987), Chap. 4.2.
  13. E.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).
  14. D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4935 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. K. Vij, D. R. J. Simpson, and O. E. Panarina, J. Mol. Liq. 112, 125 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

J. K. Vij, D. R. J. Simpson, and O. E. Panarina, J. Mol. Liq. 112, 125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, M. Nĕmec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1951

R. Fleischmann and H. Schopper, Zeitschr. Phys. 129, 285 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Åstrand, P.-O.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, L.

L. Bergmann and C. Schaefer, Optik (de Gruyter, 1987), Chap. 4.2.

Cheville, R. A.

B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

Flanders, B. N.

B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fleischmann, R.

R. Fleischmann and H. Schopper, Zeitschr. Phys. 129, 285 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ino, Y.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, M. Nĕmec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, M.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, M. Nĕmec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kindt, J. T.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuzel, P.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, M. Nĕmec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, K. V.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

K. Wang and D. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morikawa, O.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nashima, S.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, M.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, M. Nĕmec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Panarina, O. E.

J. K. Vij, D. R. J. Simpson, and O. E. Panarina, J. Mol. Liq. 112, 125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pashkin, A.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, M. Nĕmec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, C.

L. Bergmann and C. Schaefer, Optik (de Gruyter, 1987), Chap. 4.2.

Scherer, N. F.

B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schopper, H.

R. Fleischmann and H. Schopper, Zeitschr. Phys. 129, 285 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Shimano, R.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, D. R. J.

J. K. Vij, D. R. J. Simpson, and O. E. Panarina, J. Mol. Liq. 112, 125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takata, K.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thrane, L.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

Urban, M. W.

M. W. Urban, Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy of Polymers: Theory and Practice (American Chemical Society, 1996).

Vartiainen, E. M.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Venables, D. S.

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vij, J. K.

J. K. Vij, D. R. J. Simpson, and O. E. Panarina, J. Mol. Liq. 112, 125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wallqvist, A.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

E. M. Vartiainen, Y. Ino, R. Shimano, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Venables and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 11222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Liq.

J. K. Vij, D. R. J. Simpson, and O. E. Panarina, J. Mol. Liq. 112, 125 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

J. T. Kindt and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 10373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 11824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Wang and D. Mittleman, Nature 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, M. Nĕmec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeitschr. Phys.

R. Fleischmann and H. Schopper, Zeitschr. Phys. 129, 285 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Bergmann and C. Schaefer, Optik (de Gruyter, 1987), Chap. 4.2.

E.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

M. W. Urban, Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy of Polymers: Theory and Practice (American Chemical Society, 1996).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Proposed device combining emitter and detector on one substrate. See text for details. (b) Optical apparatus for THz direct-contact reflection spectroscopy. B, beam splitter; S, sample container; E, GaAs THz emitter; M, parabolic mirrors; L, lenses; V, variable optical delay; C, ZnTe crystal; λ, λ 4 wave plate; P, Wollastone prism; D, photodiodes. (c) Emitter layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-domain signals measured with direct-contact method. Samples were (a) dry nitrogen gas, (b) isopropanol, (c) 1:1 mixture of isopropanol and water, (d) water, and (e) saturated solution of NaCl in water. The single traces were shifted and an offset in y-direction was added for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index of refraction and power absorption coefficient for water at room temperature. Solid line, measured with direct-contact apparatus; squares, from [3]; circles, from [14]; triangles, from [15], stars, from [16].

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

q n = n r e l 1 n r e l + 1 ,
q s = ( n r e l 2 sin 2 α cos α ) 2 n r e l 2 1 .
q s t = 1 α max α = 0 α m a x q s ( n r e l , α ) d α .

Metrics