Abstract

We present a novel fluorescence lifetime tomography system applied to a highly scattering autofluorescent phantom containing live cells expressing the fluorophore enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fluorescence signal was excited using a fiber-laser-pumped supercontinuum source and detected using wide-field time gating imaging. To facilitate rapid 3D reconstruction of the fluorescence lifetime distribution, the time-resolved data were Fourier-transformed in time to give complex functions that formed a data set for the Fourier domain reconstruction. Initially the presence of an unspecified background autofluorescence signal impeded reconstruction of the lifetime distribution, but we show that this problem can be addressed using a simple iterative technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (3)

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, and Y. Yamada, Opt. Express 14, 7109 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Y. Soloviev, Med. Phys. 33, 4176 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Soubret and V. Ntziachristos, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3983 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. T. N. Kumar, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, D. A. Boas, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 30, 3357 (2005).

M. Gao, G. Lewis, G. M. Turner, A. Soubret, and V. Ntziachristos, Appl. Opt. 44, 5468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1998 (2)

J. H. Chang, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbor, Appl. Opt. 37, 3347 (1998).

R. Y. Tsien, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Reynolds, C. A. Thompson, K. J. Webb, F. P. LaPlant, and D. Ben-Amotz, Appl. Opt. 36, 2252 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

Bacskai, B. J.

A. T. N. Kumar, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, D. A. Boas, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 30, 3357 (2005).

Barbor, R. L.

J. H. Chang, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbor, Appl. Opt. 37, 3347 (1998).

Ben-Amotz, D.

Benninger, R.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Bouman, C. A.

Chance, B.

Chang, J. H.

J. H. Chang, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbor, Appl. Opt. 37, 3347 (1998).

Davis, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, A. K.

A. T. N. Kumar, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, D. A. Boas, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 30, 3357 (2005).

Elson, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

French, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, F.

Gao, M.

Graber, H. L.

J. H. Chang, H. L. Graber, and R. L. Barbor, Appl. Opt. 37, 3347 (1998).

Hutchinson, C. L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, A. T. N.

A. T. N. Kumar, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, D. A. Boas, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 30, 3357 (2005).

Lanigan, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

LaPlant, F. P.

Lever, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G.

Li, X. D.

Lopez, G.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGinty, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Millane, R. P.

Milstein, A. B.

Munro, I.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

Oh, S.

O'Leary, M. A.

Patterson, M. S.

Phillips, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

Reavell, F.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. S.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Reynolds, C. A. Thompson, K. J. Webb, F. P. LaPlant, and D. Ben-Amotz, Appl. Opt. 36, 2252 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandison, A.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seigel, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skoch, J.

A. T. N. Kumar, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, D. A. Boas, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 30, 3357 (2005).

Soloviev, V. Y.

V. Y. Soloviev, Med. Phys. 33, 4176 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soubret, A.

Stamp, G.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suhling, K.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tadrous, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talbot, C.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanikawa, Y.

Thompson, C. A.

Treanor, B.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Troy, T. L.

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

R. Y. Tsien, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, G. M.

Wallace, A.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Webb, K. J.

Webb, S.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Yodh, A. G.

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, H.

Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1)

R. Y. Tsien, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 509 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Med. Phys. (1)

V. Y. Soloviev, Med. Phys. 33, 4176 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, X. D. Li, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Opt. Lett. 21, 158 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. N. Kumar, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, D. A. Boas, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 30, 3357 (2005).

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

E. M. Sevick-Muraca, G. Lopez, J. S. Reynolds, T. L. Troy, and C. L. Hutchinson, Photochem. Photobiol. 66, 55 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Seigel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. Soubret and V. Ntziachristos, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3983 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Epoxy and hardener emission spectrum for several excitation wavelengths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Phantom, (b) reconstructed lifetime at ω = 100 MHz by using the method of successive approximations, (c) reconstructed quantum yield.

Equations (1)

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E ν * ( r ) C p V ( μ a μ s ) G ν * ( r , r ) U ν ( r , r 0 ) Q ( r ) d 3 r ,

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