Abstract

A slow-light medium based on multiple, closely spaced gain lines is studied. The spacings and relative strengths of the gain lines are optimized by using the criteria of gain penalty and eye-opening penalty to maximize the fractional delay defined in terms of the best decision time for random pulse trains. Both numerical calculations and experiments show that an optimal design of a triple-gain-line medium can achieve a maximal fractional delay about twice that which can be obtained with a single-gain-line medium, at three times higher modulation bandwidth, while high data fidelity is still maintained.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007

2006

2005

J. D. Downie, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2031 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thevenaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, Opt. Express 13, 9995 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 41, 208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002), Chap. 4.
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 43, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), pp. 497-530.
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper WB3.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 41, 208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, A. M. C.

Dong, Y.

Downie, J. D.

Eyal, A.

Fazal, I.

Gaeta, A. L.

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, and A. E. Willner, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, and D. J. Gauthier, Opt. Express 15, 1878 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, Opt. Express 13, 9995 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 43, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), pp. 497-530.
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper WB3.

Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thevenaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henker, R.

T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, and R. Henker, Electron. Lett. 42, 1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Junker, M.

T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, and R. Henker, Electron. Lett. 42, 1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Ku, P. C.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 41, 208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lauterbach, K. U.

T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, and R. Henker, Electron. Lett. 42, 1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Lu, Z.

Luo, T.

Minardo, A.

Neifeld, M. A.

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, Opt. Express 13, 9995 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper WB3.

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pant, R.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper WB3.

Schneider, T.

T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, and R. Henker, Electron. Lett. 42, 1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper WB3.

Song, K. Y.

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thevenaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stenner, M. D.

M. D. Stenner, M. A. Neifeld, Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, and D. J. Gauthier, Opt. Express 13, 9995 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper WB3.

Thevenaz, L.

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thevenaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 41, 208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

Willner, A. E.

Yan, L.

Yu, C.

Zadok, A.

Zeni, L.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

Zhu, Z.

Zhu, Z. M.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Gonzalez-Herraez, K. Y. Song, and L. Thevenaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

R. S. Tucker, P. C. Ku, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Electron. Lett. 41, 208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Schneider, M. Junker, K. U. Lauterbach, and R. Henker, Electron. Lett. 42, 1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, A. L. Gaeta, and A. E. Willner, Phys. Rev. A 71, 023801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002), Chap. 4.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 43, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), pp. 497-530.
[CrossRef]

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, R. Pant, M. D. Stenner, and M. A. Neifeld, in Slow and Fast Light, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper WB3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a SBS-based tunable delay line. TL, tunable laser; FPC, fiber polarization controller; AFG, arbitrary function generator; VOA, variable optical attenuator. The inset on the right shows a typical profile of n ̃ for a TGL medium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Maximum achievable fractional delay Δ T ¯ max ; (b) corresponding EOP; and (c) optimum values of the half separation δ opt and peak ratio r opt as functions of normalized bandwidth for the SGL, DGL, and TGL media, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The eye diagram of (a) a theoretical noiseless input, (b) a theoretical noiseless output, (c) the actual input in the experiment, and (d) the actual output in the experiment for the optimum design of a TGL medium with Δ T ¯ 1.9 at Δ ν = 1.4 γ . The dotted lines indicate the magnitude of the eye opening E of each case.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated results of fractional delay Δ T ¯ and (b) EOP as functions of gain (normalized by the gain required for achieving Δ T ¯ max ) for optimum designs of a triple-gain medium at various bandwidths.

Equations (3)

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n ̃ ( ν ) = 1 + j c g j 4 π ν 0 γ ν ν 0 δ j + i γ ,
max { 2 k 0 I [ n ̃ ( ν ) ] L } < 7 , ν ν 0 < Δ ν ,
EOP 10 log ( E out E in ) < 1.87 dB ,

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