Abstract

We report, for what is the first time to our knowledge, widely tunable mid-IR light generation over a range of greater than 1000nm in the 4μm region by employing a single quasi-phase-matched periodically poled niobate waveguide at room temperature. The waveguide we used was fabricated by annealed proton exchange based on periodically poled lithium niobate. A peak conversion efficiency of 10%W and a linewidth as small as 37MHz were achieved. The developed mid-IR light generator may find wide applications in trace gas detection of multiple atmospheric species and high-resolution spectroscopy.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 531 (1998).
  4. D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).
  5. M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), p. 120.
  6. K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).
  8. C. Q. Xu, presented at The 4th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on the Basics and Application of Plasma Science and Technology, December 12-14, 2005, Douliou, Taiwan, paper IN09.
  9. C. Fischer and M. W. Sigrist, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 97 (2003).
  10. O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Fischer and M. W. Sigrist, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 97 (2003).

2001

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).

2000

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

1998

1996

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), p. 120.

1993

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), p. 120.

Asobe, M.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M.-H.

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), p. 120.

Curl, R. F.

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 531 (1998).

Ducci, S.

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erdelyi, M.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).

Fejer, M. M.

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), p. 120.

Field, S. J.

Filloux, P.

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, C.

C. Fischer and M. W. Sigrist, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 97 (2003).

Fraser, M.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).

Friedfeld, S.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).

Huang, L.

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawahara, M.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lanco, L.

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leleux, D.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).

Leo, G.

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Likforman, J. P.

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Magari, K.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcadet, X.

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, H.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okayama, H.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, T. L.

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, K. P.

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 531 (1998).

Ravaro, M.

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rehle, D.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).

Roth, A. P.

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

Ryan, A. T.

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, Opt. Lett. 23, 1052 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shinozaki, K.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

C. Fischer and M. W. Sigrist, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 97 (2003).

Suzuki, H.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thoms, T. P. S.

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

Tittel, F.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).

Tittel, F. K.

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 531 (1998).

Watanabe, K.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. Q.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Xu, presented at The 4th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on the Basics and Application of Plasma Science and Technology, December 12-14, 2005, Douliou, Taiwan, paper IN09.

Yanagawa, T.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, Appl. Phys. B 72, 947 (2001).

K. P. Petrov, A. P. Roth, T. L. Patterson, T. P. S. Thoms, L. Huang, A. T. Ryan, and D. J. Bamford, Appl. Phys. B 70, 777 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaki, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Lanco, S. Ducci, J. P. Likforman, M. Ravaro, P. Filloux, X. Marcadet, G. Leo, and V. Berger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Petrov, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 531 (1998).

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Top. Appl. Phys.

C. Fischer and M. W. Sigrist, Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 97 (2003).

Other

C. Q. Xu, presented at The 4th Asia-Pacific International Symposium on the Basics and Application of Plasma Science and Technology, December 12-14, 2005, Douliou, Taiwan, paper IN09.

M. A. Arbore, M.-H. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1996), p. 120.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup used in DFG generation. M, mirror; DM, dichroic mirror; BS, beam splitter; L, lens; GF, germanium filter; PA, preamplifier; D, detector; A, aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength tuning curve for one waveguide with grating period of 22.7 μ m at room temperature. The maximum conversion efficiency is about 10 % W . The inset shows the spectrum of the v 3 band absorption of C O 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured pump laser (Ti:sapphire) tuning curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High-resolution direct absorption spectrum of pure C O 2 at 0.3   Torr with 30 cm optical length; the enlarged shows part of the spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Doppler-broadened absorption spectra of C 13 O 2 by DFG frequency scan over 0.04 cm 1 . Pure C 13 O 2 filled a 30 cm long cell with a pressure of 0.3   Torr .

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