Abstract

The evolution of surface morphology of tungsten irradiated by single-beam femtosecond laser pulses is investigated. Ripplelike periodic structures have been observed. The period of these ripples does not show a simple relation to the wavelength and angle of incidence. The orientation of ripples is aligned perpendicularly to the direction of polarization for linearly polarized light. Surprisingly, we find that the alignment of the ripple structure turned left or right by 45° with respect to the incident plane when using right and left circularly polarized light, respectively. The period of the ripple can be controlled by the pulse energy, the number of pulses, and the incident angle. We find a clear threshold for the formation as a function of pulse energy and number of pulses. The mechanism for the ripple formation is discussed, as well as potential applications in large-area structuring of metals.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. B 71, 119 (2000).
  2. T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, C. J. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, Opt. Express 13, 3104 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Osgood, Jr. and D. J. Ehrlich, Opt. Lett. 7, 385 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. M. Vandriel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, J. Lumin. 30, 446 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 3, 358 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1685 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Laroche, C. Arnold, F. Marquier, R. Garminati, J. J. Greffet, S. Collin, N. Bardou, and J. L. Pelouard, Opt. Lett. 30, 2623 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 3, 358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. B 71, 119 (2000).

1985 (1)

H. M. Vandriel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, J. Lumin. 30, 446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (4)

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Osgood, Jr. and D. J. Ehrlich, Opt. Lett. 7, 385 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C.

Bai, Y. H.

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bardou, N.

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 3, 358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Collin, S.

Ehrlich, D. J.

Fauchet, P. M.

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Garminati, R.

Greffet, J. J.

Hirano, M.

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. B 71, 119 (2000).

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosono, H.

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. B 71, 119 (2000).

Jiang, X. W.

Juodkazis, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. B 71, 119 (2000).

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laroche, M.

Marquier, F.

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munz, M.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 3, 358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. B 71, 119 (2000).

Osgood, R. M.

Pelouard, J. L.

Preston, J. S.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J. R.

Sai, H.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. B 71, 119 (2000).

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

H. M. Vandriel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, J. Lumin. 30, 446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 3, 358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vandriel, H. M.

H. M. Vandriel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, J. Lumin. 30, 446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

H. M. Vandriel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, J. Lumin. 30, 446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, Q. Z.

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C. S.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

F. Keilmann and Y. H. Bai, Appl. Phys. A 29, 9 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Kawamura, T. Ogawa, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. B 71, 119 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 824 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 3, 358 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

H. M. Vandriel, J. E. Sipe, and J. F. Young, J. Lumin. 30, 446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Morphological evolution of structures on tungsten induced by fs laser with varied energy and pulse numbers. (a)–(r) Induced by vertical polarization; (s), (t) induced by left and right circular polarization, respectively. Inset, schematic of the momentum conservation condition of wave vectors of incident light ( k i ) , plasma wave ( k p ) , and ripple structure ( k r ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Laser energy versus pulse numbers required to form periodic structures. Only above-the-line ripple structures can be observed. (b) Inverse of the fluence as a function of pulse number.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of period of ripples on (a) the number of pulses, (b) the pulse energy, and (c) the incident angle. The solid curve in (c) is plotted to guide the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Demonstration of writing of large-area periodic structures. (a) Schematic of two writing schemes. Dashed arrow, laser polarization direction; solid arrow, laser scanning direction. Inset, optical microscope image of horizontal and vertical scanning. (b) SEM image of large-area ripple structures. Inset, magnification.

Metrics