Abstract

In subjective refraction the spherical and cylindrical errors of the human eye are measured. Recently, we reported a technique by which the spherical error can be measured in one step using a hologram [ K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, Opt. Lett. 28, 123 (2003) ]. We have now developed a holographic target consisting of sunburst patterns to measure the astigmatic error of the human eye as well. Apart from being simple, quick, and low cost, holography offers the advantage of being an open field refraction system that is devoid of the problem of proximal accommodation. We describe the holographic target, its working principles, the measurement procedure, and the initial results obtained.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, Opt. Lett. 28, 123 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, N. Nicholas, K. W. Chiam, and C. Truong, "Performance of the holographic multivergence target in the measurement of spherical refractive error and amplitude of accommodation of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
  3. R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett and Rabbetts' Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).
  4. A. H. Tunnacliffe and J. G. Hirst, Optics (Association of British Dispensing Opticians, 1996).
  5. P. Hariharan, Optical Holography (Cambridge U. Press, 1984).

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett and Rabbetts' Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).

1996 (1)

A. H. Tunnacliffe and J. G. Hirst, Optics (Association of British Dispensing Opticians, 1996).

1984 (1)

P. Hariharan, Optical Holography (Cambridge U. Press, 1984).

Avudainayagam, C. S.

K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, Opt. Lett. 28, 123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, N. Nicholas, K. W. Chiam, and C. Truong, "Performance of the holographic multivergence target in the measurement of spherical refractive error and amplitude of accommodation of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Avudainayagam, K. V.

K. V. Avudainayagam and C. S. Avudainayagam, Opt. Lett. 28, 123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, N. Nicholas, K. W. Chiam, and C. Truong, "Performance of the holographic multivergence target in the measurement of spherical refractive error and amplitude of accommodation of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Chiam, K. W.

K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, N. Nicholas, K. W. Chiam, and C. Truong, "Performance of the holographic multivergence target in the measurement of spherical refractive error and amplitude of accommodation of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, Optical Holography (Cambridge U. Press, 1984).

Hirst, J. G.

A. H. Tunnacliffe and J. G. Hirst, Optics (Association of British Dispensing Opticians, 1996).

Nicholas, N.

K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, N. Nicholas, K. W. Chiam, and C. Truong, "Performance of the holographic multivergence target in the measurement of spherical refractive error and amplitude of accommodation of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Rabbetts, R. B.

R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett and Rabbetts' Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).

Truong, C.

K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, N. Nicholas, K. W. Chiam, and C. Truong, "Performance of the holographic multivergence target in the measurement of spherical refractive error and amplitude of accommodation of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Tunnacliffe, A. H.

A. H. Tunnacliffe and J. G. Hirst, Optics (Association of British Dispensing Opticians, 1996).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

K. V. Avudainayagam, C. S. Avudainayagam, N. Nicholas, K. W. Chiam, and C. Truong, "Performance of the holographic multivergence target in the measurement of spherical refractive error and amplitude of accommodation of the human eye," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

R. B. Rabbetts, Bennett and Rabbetts' Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth Heinemann, 1998).

A. H. Tunnacliffe and J. G. Hirst, Optics (Association of British Dispensing Opticians, 1996).

P. Hariharan, Optical Holography (Cambridge U. Press, 1984).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) View of a distant point source through the mean spherical correction, M. (b) View of a distant point source through the mean spherical correction M, plus a positive spherical lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Special 3D object used in recording the hologram. (b) Experimental arrangement used to record the hologram of the special 3-D object. BS, beam splitter; SF, spatial filter; CL, collimating lens; M, mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulation of an emmetrope’s view through the hologram. (b) Vergences corresponding to the various sunburst patterns in the view through the hologram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Simulated view of a 1 D myope. (b) Simulated view of an astigmatic subject whose prescription is 1.00 DS 1.00 DC × 90 .

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