Abstract

We demonstrate the use of subwavelength gratings etched into the facets of silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides as a means of reducing facet reflectivity by the gradient-index effect. Reflectivities as low as 2.0% and 2.4% for the fundamental TE and TM modes, respectively, are demonstrated experimentally for light of 1.55μm wavelength, in agreement with both effective medium theory and finite-difference time domain calculations. Simulations show that facet reflectivites can be further reduced to less than 1% by increasing the grating modulation depth.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Cheben, Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, M.L.Calvo and V.Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), Chap. 5.
  2. H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.
  5. J. H. Schmid, presented at GHI and Microphotonics Meeting (Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 2006).
  6. A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, M.L.Calvo and V.Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), Chap. 5.

2006 (2)

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, presented at GHI and Microphotonics Meeting (Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 2006).

2003 (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Bruno, J.

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

P. Cheben, Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, M.L.Calvo and V.Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), Chap. 5.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

Densmore, A.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirisu, A. O.

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuta, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

Lapointe, J.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

Liu, Z.

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Post, E.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

Raguin, D. H.

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Schmid, J. H.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

J. H. Schmid, presented at GHI and Microphotonics Meeting (Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 2006).

Silva, G.

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Towner, F. J.

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toyota, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

Xu, D.-X.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, Opt. Express 14, 4695 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, W.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. O. Dirisu, G. Silva, Z. Liu, C. F. Gmachl, F. J. Towner, J. Bruno, and D. L. Sivco, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 221 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, Opt. Rev. 10, 63 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466 (1956).

Other (3)

P. Cheben, Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, M.L.Calvo and V.Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), Chap. 5.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, presented at The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Munich, Germany, June 17-22, 2007.

J. H. Schmid, presented at GHI and Microphotonics Meeting (Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left: SEM micrograph of an SOI ridge waveguide facet patterned with a triangular SWG structure. Right: schematic top view of the device (see text for detailed description).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabry–Perot fringes in the transmission spectra of waveguides with and without SWG facet patterning. SWG modulation depth is 720 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Example of the layout used for a 2D FDTD simulation. The region labeled “A” marks the silicon waveguide, region “B” is the cladding, region “C” is air. The plane where the waveguide mode is initially launched for the simulation is indicated by the vertical line. (b) The simulated TE field map for the structure shown in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental data and theoretical results (EMT and FDTD) for the facet reflectivity as a function of the length of the graded-index section (i.e., SWG modulation depth).

Equations (3)

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T max T min = ( 1 + e α L R ) 2 ( 1 e α L R ) 2 .
n = ( f n Si 2 + ( 1 f ) n air 2 ) 1 2 ,
n = ( f n Si 2 + ( 1 f ) n air 2 ) 1 2 .

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