Abstract

Slow light is demonstrated in liquid phase in an aqueous bacteriorhodopsin (bR) solution at room temperature. Group velocity as low as 3 ms (all the way to c) is achieved by exploiting the photoisomerization property of bR for coherent population oscillations. Slow light in the liquid phase offers several advantages over solids or vapors for a variety of applications: (i) shorter lifetimes of the M state facilitate slow light at higher modulation frequencies, (ii) convection makes it possible to obtain large signal delays even at high input powers, and (iii) solution concentration is another convenient parameter to vary the signal delay over a wide range.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2005 (3)

P. Wu and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumeluk, and S. Odoulov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Vol. 43.

2001 (2)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takshashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lee and N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 703 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, B. J. Wiley, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Akkara, J. A.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, B. J. Wiley, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aranda, F. J.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, B. J. Wiley, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Vol. 43.

Bräuchle, C.

Chang, S. W.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chuang, S. L.

Foanrev, A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Vol. 43.

Hampp, N.

Harris, S. E.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, M.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D. L.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, B. J. Wiley, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, A.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kothapalli, S.

S. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kryzhanovsky, B. V.

Ku, P. C.

Lawandy, N. M.

K. Lee and N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 703 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

K. Lee and N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 703 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lepeshkin, N. N.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T.

Milkaelian, A. L.

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takshashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odoulov, S.

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumeluk, and S. Odoulov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oesterhelt, D.

Okawachi, Y.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palinginis, P.

Podivilov, E.

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumeluk, and S. Odoulov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

P. Wu and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, B. J. Wiley, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roach, J. F.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, B. J. Wiley, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, V. K.

Schweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedwigck, F.

Sharping, J. E.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takshashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shumeluk, A.

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumeluk, and S. Odoulov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturman, B.

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumeluk, and S. Odoulov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takshashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takshashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takshashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoma, R.

Wang, H. L.

Wiley, B. J.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, B. J. Wiley, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

P. Wu and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takshashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelleswarapu, C. S.

S. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y. G.

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takshashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z. M.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, B. J. Wiley, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Lee and N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 703 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Kothapalli, P. Wu, C. S. Yelleswarapu, and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044028 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, Y. G. Yin, and S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takshashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumeluk, and S. Odoulov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wu and D. V. G. L. N. Rao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2002), Vol. 43.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental results of slow light pulse delay in bR solution with the increase of modulation frequency. The input is a sinusoidally modulated laser beam at 568 nm with an average power of 25 mW . The sample thickness is 1 cm , and it has a transmission of 20%. The solid curve is the theoretical fit to the experimental data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of slow light pulse delay on the input power. As the input is increased, the delay increases before approaching a constant value at 30 mW . The modulation frequency is 50 Hz , and the sample transmission is 20%. The solid curve is the theoretical fit to the experimental data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Control of the slow light delay with optical density of the bR solution. The solid line is the theoretical fit to the experimental data.

Equations (2)

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Δ T = Δ n ( δ ) L c ,
n g = n ( ω ) + α 0 c τ I B 2 [ ( 1 + I B ) 2 + ( δ 2 τ 2 ) ] = n ( ω ) + Δ n ( δ ) ,

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