Abstract

Bend distortion is emerging as an important consideration in the design of amplifier fibers with a large mode area, in addition to bend loss and mode-coupling effects. Simple, intuitive estimates of distortion sensitivity are presented for two interesting classes of fibers, in agreement with full numerical simulations.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

1982 (1)

Albin, S.

Amezcua, R.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baggett, J.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Chang, G.

K.-H. Liao, K.-C. Hou, G. Chang, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, R. Changkakoti, P. Mamidipudi, and A. Galvanauskas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CPDB4.

Changkakoti, R.

K.-H. Liao, K.-C. Hou, G. Chang, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, R. Changkakoti, P. Mamidipudi, and A. Galvanauskas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CPDB4.

Deguil-Robin, N.

Dimarcello, F.

Dong, L.

Farrow, R. L.

Fermann, M. E.

Finazzi, V.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

Galvanauskas, A.

K.-H. Liao, K.-C. Hou, G. Chang, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, R. Changkakoti, P. Mamidipudi, and A. Galvanauskas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CPDB4.

Ghalmi, S.

Glebov, L.

K.-H. Liao, K.-C. Hou, G. Chang, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, R. Changkakoti, P. Mamidipudi, and A. Galvanauskas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CPDB4.

Guo, S.

Hadley, G. R.

Hayes, J.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hou, K.-C.

K.-H. Liao, K.-C. Hou, G. Chang, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, R. Changkakoti, P. Mamidipudi, and A. Galvanauskas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CPDB4.

Jakobsen, C.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Liao, K.-H.

K.-H. Liao, K.-C. Hou, G. Chang, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, R. Changkakoti, P. Mamidipudi, and A. Galvanauskas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CPDB4.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Mamidipudi, P.

K.-H. Liao, K.-C. Hou, G. Chang, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, R. Changkakoti, P. Mamidipudi, and A. Galvanauskas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CPDB4.

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Marcuse, D.

McLaughlin, J. M.

Monberg, E.

Monro, T.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J.

Nolte, S.

O'Driscoll, E.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

Petersson, A.

Petrovich, M.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proudley, G.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Richardson, D.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rogowski, R. S.

Röser, F.

Salin, F.

Salter, P.

J. Baggett, M. Petrovich, J. Hayes, V. Finazzi, F. Poletti, R. Amezcua, N. Broderick, D. Richardson, T. Monro, P. Salter, G. Proudley, and E. O'Driscoll, Proc. SPIE 6017, 601709 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Smirnov, V.

K.-H. Liao, K.-C. Hou, G. Chang, V. Smirnov, L. Glebov, R. Changkakoti, P. Mamidipudi, and A. Galvanauskas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CPDB4.

Smith, A. V.

Tai, H.

Tünnermann, A.

Wisk, P.

Wong, W. S.

Wu, F.

Yan, M.

Zellmer, H.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated area plotted for nine SIFs with Δ n = 0.01 (squares), 0.0025 (circles), 0.0006 (triangles). Distortion arises intuitively (right) when Δ n bend > Δ n eff . The effective index (horizontal line) and fiber index profiles (straight and bend, shown solid and dashed) define a forbidden region of the core (shaded).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distortion curves for nine SIFs reduced to a single universal curve when rescaled (left). For well-guided SIFs, mode area is nearly inversely related to Δ n eff (right). Well-guided modes (solid) lie near the diagonal guideline, with only the weakly guided (V-number 1.4 ) fiber deviating (dashed).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A parabolic profile is resistant to bend distortion because adding a bend-induced gradient preserves the shape of a quadratic index peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distortion curves for many parabolic fibers look very different but reduce to nearly the same dependence when scaled by using the intuitive sensitivity parameter S P .

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R bend R core 3 .
n eq ( x , y ) = n ( x , y ) ( 1 + x R bend ) .
Δ n bend > Δ n eff = n core n eff ,
S n core R core Δ n eff ,
A eff 0 λ 2 8.8 n core Δ n eff ,
x d = n core R core 2 2 R bend Δ n grad .
x d > R core 2 .
S P = n core R core Δ n grad ,

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