Abstract

Photodarkening of Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers by continuous wave 488nm irradiation was investigated. The irradiation induced significant excess loss in the UV-visible spectroscopy (VIS) region in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers while pure aluminosilicate fibers showed negligible induced loss. Ultraviolet-VIS-near-infrared spectroscopy revealed an absorption peak at 220nm in unexposed Yb-doped aluminosilicate fiber preforms. The observed peak was attributed to Yb-associated oxygen deficiency centers (ODCs) and proposed as a precursor of the photodarkening. The proposed model was supported by measurements on oxygen-loaded Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers. In these, the photodarkening could be significantly reduced, which we attribute to a smaller number of ODCs following oxygen loading.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (2)

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. Tammela, and H. Po, Proc. SPIE 5990, 72 (2005).

S. M. Kaczmarek, T. Tsuboi, M. Ito, G. Boulon, and G. Leniec, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 3771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Kajihara, T. Miura, H. Kamioka, M. Hirao, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Imagawa, T. Arai, H. Hosono, H. Imai, and K. Arai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 70 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

L. J. Poyntz-Wright and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K.

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Imagawa, T. Arai, H. Hosono, H. Imai, and K. Arai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 70 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Arai, T.

H. Imagawa, T. Arai, H. Hosono, H. Imai, and K. Arai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 70 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

S. M. Kaczmarek, T. Tsuboi, M. Ito, G. Boulon, and G. Leniec, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 3771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Broer, M. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Fermann, M. E.

Handa, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, K.

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper OThC5.
[PubMed]

Hirao, M.

K. Kajihara, T. Miura, H. Kamioka, M. Hirao, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

K. Kajihara, T. Miura, H. Kamioka, M. Hirao, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Imagawa, T. Arai, H. Hosono, H. Imai, and K. Arai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 70 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper OThC5.
[PubMed]

Imagawa, H.

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Imagawa, T. Arai, H. Hosono, H. Imai, and K. Arai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 70 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imai, H.

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Imagawa, T. Arai, H. Hosono, H. Imai, and K. Arai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 70 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

S. M. Kaczmarek, T. Tsuboi, M. Ito, G. Boulon, and G. Leniec, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 3771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, S. M.

S. M. Kaczmarek, T. Tsuboi, M. Ito, G. Boulon, and G. Leniec, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 3771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kajihara, K.

K. Kajihara, T. Miura, H. Kamioka, M. Hirao, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamioka, H.

K. Kajihara, T. Miura, H. Kamioka, M. Hirao, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitabayashi, T.

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper OThC5.
[PubMed]

Koponen, J. J.

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. Tammela, and H. Po, Proc. SPIE 5990, 72 (2005).

Krol, D. M.

Kumata, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Leniec, G.

S. M. Kaczmarek, T. Tsuboi, M. Ito, G. Boulon, and G. Leniec, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 3771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miura, T.

K. Kajihara, T. Miura, H. Kamioka, M. Hirao, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, M.

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper OThC5.
[PubMed]

Namikawa, H.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper OThC5.
[PubMed]

Po, H.

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. Tammela, and H. Po, Proc. SPIE 5990, 72 (2005).

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sakai, T.

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper OThC5.
[PubMed]

Skuja, L.

K. Kajihara, T. Miura, H. Kamioka, M. Hirao, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Söderlund, M. J.

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. Tammela, and H. Po, Proc. SPIE 5990, 72 (2005).

Tammela, S. K.

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. Tammela, and H. Po, Proc. SPIE 5990, 72 (2005).

Tsuboi, T.

S. M. Kaczmarek, T. Tsuboi, M. Ito, G. Boulon, and G. Leniec, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 3771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. J. Poyntz-Wright and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 25, 478 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

K. Kajihara, T. Miura, H. Kamioka, M. Hirao, L. Skuja, and H. Hosono, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Imagawa, T. Arai, H. Hosono, H. Imai, and K. Arai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 70 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

S. M. Kaczmarek, T. Tsuboi, M. Ito, G. Boulon, and G. Leniec, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, 3771 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Imai, K. Arai, H. Imagawa, H. Hosono, and Y. Abe, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, S. K. Tammela, and H. Po, Proc. SPIE 5990, 72 (2005).

Other (1)

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2006), paper OThC5.
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical absorption before and after 488 nm irradiation in (a) Yb-free and (b) Yb-doped aluminosilicate fiber preform. The inset graph has an enlarged absorption scale to highlight the peak at 220 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of initial decay rate of 488 nm transmission on input intensity in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers. The insets show how the transmitted 488 nm laser power decreases during the irradiation. For the fit, β was 0.87 for both fibers. The goodness of the fitting was 0.992 and 0.997 for 5.40 and 3.01 W μ m 2 , respectively, in the 7500 ppm Yb fiber; and 0.998 and 0.978 for 6.36 and 4.57 W μ m 2 input curves, respectively, in the 10,000 ppm Yb fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Losses in 10 m long Yb-free and 1 m long Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers, induced by 488 nm irradiation at different intensities. The induced loss was measured 1 h after the irradiation ended. Values in parentheses are input intensities.

Equations (1)

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T ( t ) = A exp [ ( t τ ) β ] + ( 1 A ) ,

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