Abstract

Noninvasive measurements of the scattering coefficients of optically turbid media using angle-resolved optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI) are demonstrated. It is shown that, by incoherently averaging OFDI reflectance signals acquired at different backscattering angles, speckle noise is reduced, allowing scattering coefficients to be extracted from a single A-line with much higher accuracy than with measurements from conventional OFDI and optical coherence tomography systems. Modeling speckle as a random phasor sum, the relationship between the measurement accuracy and the number of compounded angles is derived. The sensitivity analysis is validated with measurements from a tissue phantom.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

2005

2004

2003

1999

G. Yao and L. H. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Opt. Eng. 34, 32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

Andersen, P. E.

Arifler, D.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, B.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Opt. Eng. 34, 32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, F.

Bonner, R. F.

Bouma, B. E.

Chance, B.

Collier, T.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuccia, D. J.

de Boer, J. F.

Desjardins, A. E.

Durkin, A. J.

Esenaliev, R. O.

Fantini, S.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Opt. Eng. 34, 32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini, M. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Opt. Eng. 34, 32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Opt. Eng. 34, 32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Groß, J.

J. Groß, Linear Regression (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Hassler, K.

Iftimia, N.

Jørgensen, T. M.

Karamata, B.

Kholodnykh, A. I.

Knuttel, A.

Larin, K. V.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Maier, J. S.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Opt. Eng. 34, 32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

Patterson, M. S.

Petrova, I. Y.

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Tearney, G. J.

Thrane, L.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tycho, A.

Vakoc, B. J.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

Walker, S. A.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Opt. Eng. 34, 32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. H. V.

G. Yao and L. H. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Yao, G.

G. Yao and L. H. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Yura, H. T.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Med. Phys.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, Med. Phys. 19, 879 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, Opt. Eng. 34, 32 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

G. Yao and L. H. V. Wang, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1981).

J. Groß, Linear Regression (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Log-transformed OCT signals from a single angular sample corresponding to 180° backscattering and inset angular compounding across 25 angles within the range of 180 ± 5 ° , with corresponding linear fits over the range of 500 μ m within the tissue phantom.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probability density function (PDF) of the residuals from linear fits to log-transformed signals from a single angular sample corresponding to 180° backscattering (circles), with the corresponding theoretical PDF of Eq. (6) (solid curve). The signals were constrained to correspond to points 500 μ m from the surface of the tissue phantom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Standard error of estimated scattering coefficients as a function of the numbers of compounded angular samples (circles) and distinct A-lines (squares) with the corresponding theoretical values from Eq. (6) (solid curve). The standard error is expressed relative to the gold standard estimate of 1.50 mm 1 .

Equations (6)

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I ( z m , θ n ) = a s ( z m , θ n ) 2 .
a s ( z m , θ n ) exp [ μ eff z m ( 1 + sec θ n ) 2 ] k = 1 M b exp [ i Δ k ( z m , θ n ) ] = μ b exp [ μ eff z m ( 1 + sec θ n ) 2 ] ϵ ( z m , θ n ) ,
ϵ ( z m , θ n ) = 1 M k = 1 M exp [ i Δ k ( z m , θ n ) ] .
I log ( z m , θ n ) = log [ I ( z m , θ n ) ] = A + B ( θ n ) z m + ϵ log ( z m , θ n ) ,
σ eff 2 = σ ϵ , 1 2 N ( k = 1 N z k 2 ) 1 .
p ( ϵ log ) = exp [ ϵ log + ϵ ¯ log exp ( ϵ log + ϵ ¯ log ) ] .

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