Abstract

We report measurements of the nonlinear refractive index, n2, of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in toluene at 532nm. The measurements were performed using the Z-scan technique with 80ps laser pulses at 7Hz. Large values of n2 in the range of 10131012cm2W were measured, and negligible two-photon absorption coefficient was estimated for colloids having NP filling fractions in the range of 108107.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. See for instance, S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2004), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, A. Galembeck, M. M. Oliveira, and A. J. G. Zarbin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2444 (2005), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. G. Miranda, E. L. Falcão-Filho, J. J. Rodrigues, Jr., C. B. de Araújo, and L. H. Acioli, Phys. Rev. B 70, 161401(R) (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, S. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, J. Phys. D 34, 1602 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Opt. Lett. 25, 563 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Tartaj, M. del Puerto Morales, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, T. González-Carreño, and C. J. Serna, J. Phys. D 36, R182 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. H. Kodama and A. E. Berkowitz, Phys. Rev. B 59, 6321 (1999), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Ma, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Wang, J. Song, L. Gao, J. Jin, H. Zheng, and Z. Zhang, Nanotechnology 16, 37 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Dekker, 1996).
  16. R. J. Powell and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2182 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. A. Gómez, C. B. de Araújo, A. M. Brito Silva, and A. Galembeck, "Influence of stabilizing agents on the nonlinear susceptibility of silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (to be published).

2006 (1)

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

M. H. G. Miranda, E. L. Falcão-Filho, J. J. Rodrigues, Jr., C. B. de Araújo, and L. H. Acioli, Phys. Rev. B 70, 161401(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Tartaj, M. del Puerto Morales, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, T. González-Carreño, and C. J. Serna, J. Phys. D 36, R182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

See for instance, S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, S. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, J. Phys. D 34, 1602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. H. Kodama and A. E. Berkowitz, Phys. Rev. B 59, 6321 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. W. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

H. Ma, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. J. Powell and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L. H.

M. H. G. Miranda, E. L. Falcão-Filho, J. J. Rodrigues, Jr., C. B. de Araújo, and L. H. Acioli, Phys. Rev. B 70, 161401(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

Berkowitz, A. E.

R. H. Kodama and A. E. Berkowitz, Phys. Rev. B 59, 6321 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bernand-Mantel, A.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouzehouane, K.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

J. W. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brito Silva, A. M.

L. A. Gómez, C. B. de Araújo, A. M. Brito Silva, and A. Galembeck, "Influence of stabilizing agents on the nonlinear susceptibility of silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (to be published).

Carreño, N. L. V.

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cros, V.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, A. Galembeck, M. M. Oliveira, and A. J. G. Zarbin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2444 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. H. G. Miranda, E. L. Falcão-Filho, J. J. Rodrigues, Jr., C. B. de Araújo, and L. H. Acioli, Phys. Rev. B 70, 161401(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gómez, C. B. de Araújo, A. M. Brito Silva, and A. Galembeck, "Influence of stabilizing agents on the nonlinear susceptibility of silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (to be published).

del Puerto Morales, M.

P. Tartaj, M. del Puerto Morales, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, T. González-Carreño, and C. J. Serna, J. Phys. D 36, R182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deranlot, C.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

El-Sayed, M. A.

See for instance, S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, A. Galembeck, M. M. Oliveira, and A. J. G. Zarbin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2444 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. H. G. Miranda, E. L. Falcão-Filho, J. J. Rodrigues, Jr., C. B. de Araújo, and L. H. Acioli, Phys. Rev. B 70, 161401(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fert, A.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fonseca, F. C.

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fusil, S.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galembeck, A.

E. L. Falcão-Filho, C. B. de Araújo, A. Galembeck, M. M. Oliveira, and A. J. G. Zarbin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2444 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gómez, C. B. de Araújo, A. M. Brito Silva, and A. Galembeck, "Influence of stabilizing agents on the nonlinear susceptibility of silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (to be published).

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, S. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, J. Phys. D 34, 1602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

X. Wang, J. Song, L. Gao, J. Jin, H. Zheng, and Z. Zhang, Nanotechnology 16, 37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S.

H. Ma, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gómez, L. A.

L. A. Gómez, C. B. de Araújo, A. M. Brito Silva, and A. Galembeck, "Influence of stabilizing agents on the nonlinear susceptibility of silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (to be published).

González-Carreño, T.

P. Tartaj, M. del Puerto Morales, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, T. González-Carreño, and C. J. Serna, J. Phys. D 36, R182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goya, G. F.

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jardim, R. F.

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

X. Wang, J. Song, L. Gao, J. Jin, H. Zheng, and Z. Zhang, Nanotechnology 16, 37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamalov, S. R.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, S. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, J. Phys. D 34, 1602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, R. H.

R. H. Kodama and A. E. Berkowitz, Phys. Rev. B 59, 6321 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kodirov, M. K.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, S. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, J. Phys. D 34, 1602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

Lamprecht, B.

Leite, E. R.

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

Lidgi, N.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

See for instance, S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longo, E.

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, M. H. G.

M. H. G. Miranda, E. L. Falcão-Filho, J. J. Rodrigues, Jr., C. B. de Araújo, and L. H. Acioli, Phys. Rev. B 70, 161401(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muccillo, R.

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, M.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, M. M.

Petroff, F.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. J.

R. J. Powell and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues, J. J.

M. H. G. Miranda, E. L. Falcão-Filho, J. J. Rodrigues, Jr., C. B. de Araújo, and L. H. Acioli, Phys. Rev. B 70, 161401(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, S. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, J. Phys. D 34, 1602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seneor, P.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serna, C. J.

P. Tartaj, M. del Puerto Morales, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, T. González-Carreño, and C. J. Serna, J. Phys. D 36, R182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. W.

J. W. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

X. Wang, J. Song, L. Gao, J. Jin, H. Zheng, and Z. Zhang, Nanotechnology 16, 37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, W. E.

R. J. Powell and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Dekker, 1996).

Tartaj, P.

P. Tartaj, M. del Puerto Morales, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, T. González-Carreño, and C. J. Serna, J. Phys. D 36, R182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Usmanov, T.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, S. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, J. Phys. D 34, 1602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vaures, A.

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

P. Tartaj, M. del Puerto Morales, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, T. González-Carreño, and C. J. Serna, J. Phys. D 36, R182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. Song, L. Gao, J. Jin, H. Zheng, and Z. Zhang, Nanotechnology 16, 37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zarbin, A. J. G.

Zhang, Z.

X. Wang, J. Song, L. Gao, J. Jin, H. Zheng, and Z. Zhang, Nanotechnology 16, 37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

X. Wang, J. Song, L. Gao, J. Jin, H. Zheng, and Z. Zhang, Nanotechnology 16, 37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

See for instance, S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 331 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Bernand-Mantel, P. Seneor, N. Lidgi, M. Muñoz, V. Cros, S. Fusil, K. Bouzehouane, C. Deranlot, A. Vaures, F. Petroff, and A. Fert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 062502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (2)

P. Tartaj, M. del Puerto Morales, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, T. González-Carreño, and C. J. Serna, J. Phys. D 36, R182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, S. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, J. Phys. D 34, 1602 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

X. Wang, J. Song, L. Gao, J. Jin, H. Zheng, and Z. Zhang, Nanotechnology 16, 37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. W. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

R. J. Powell and W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 2, 2182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Fonseca, G. F. Goya, R. F. Jardim, R. Muccillo, N. L. V. Carreño, E. Longo, and E. R. Leite, Phys. Rev. B 66, 104406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Kodama and A. E. Berkowitz, Phys. Rev. B 59, 6321 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. H. G. Miranda, E. L. Falcão-Filho, J. J. Rodrigues, Jr., C. B. de Araújo, and L. H. Acioli, Phys. Rev. B 70, 161401(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley, 2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gómez, C. B. de Araújo, A. M. Brito Silva, and A. Galembeck, "Influence of stabilizing agents on the nonlinear susceptibility of silver nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (to be published).

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Dekker, 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption spectra of pure toluene and NiO–toluene colloid with different NP filling fractions. The liquid samples were contained in quartz cells with 1 mm thickness. (b) TEM micrograph. (c) NP size distribution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Z-scan traces for pure toluene and NiO–toluene colloid with a NP filling fraction of 1.0 × 10 8 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nonlinear refractive index as a function of the NP filling fraction.

Equations (1)

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R = Δ n thermal Δ n electronic = ( d n d T ) F α 2 ( ρ 0 C ) n 2 I ,

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