Abstract

Highly efficient conversion from ultrafast optical pulses to their terahertz (THz) counterparts has been achieved with InN thin films. An average THz output power as high as 0.931μW has been obtained for an average pump power of 1W, corresponding to a normalized conversion efficiency of 190%mm2. Based on our measured dependences of the THz output power on pump polarization, incident angle, pump power, and InN film thickness, resonance-enhanced optical rectification is one of the most plausible mechanisms for the THz generation in the InN films.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (3)

H. Liu, J. Xu, T. Yuan, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

Y. J. Ding, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. Denniston, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4810 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. I. Gavrilenko and R. Q. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, K. Yang, and L. J. Schowalter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2303 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

B. F. Levine, Phys. Rev. 7, 2600 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

F. N. H. Robinson, Phys. Lett. A 26, 435 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aderhold, J.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ascázubi, R.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. Denniston, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4810 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bechstedt, F.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. D.

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J. A.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dakovski, G. L.

Darrow, J. T.

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, V. Y.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denniston, K.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. Denniston, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4810 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emtsev, V. V.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Furthmüller, J.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gallinat, C. S.

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavrilenko, V. I.

V. I. Gavrilenko and R. Q. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Graul, J.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harima, H.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huggard, P. G.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, S. V.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jena, D.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, K. Yang, and L. J. Schowalter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2303 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klochikhin, A. A.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koblmüller, G.

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosel, T.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kubera, B.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, Phys. Rev. 7, 2600 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. X.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, J. Xu, T. Yuan, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. Denniston, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4810 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mintairov, A.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mudryi, A. V.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Readinger, E. D.

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, F. N. H.

F. N. H. Robinson, Phys. Lett. A 26, 435 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. Denniston, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4810 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schowalter, L. J.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, K. Yang, and L. J. Schowalter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2303 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seisyan, R. P.

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

Shan, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, C. J.

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. A.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, I.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. Denniston, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4810 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wraback, M.

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, R. Q.

V. I. Gavrilenko and R. Q. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

H. Liu, J. Xu, T. Yuan, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, K. Yang, and L. J. Schowalter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2303 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1989).

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

H. Liu, J. Xu, T. Yuan, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

H. Liu, J. Xu, T. Yuan, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, K. Yang, and L. J. Schowalter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2303 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zubrilov, A.

A. Zubrilov, in Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe, M. E. Levinshtein, S. L. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, eds. (Wiley, 2001), pp. 49-66.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. Denniston, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4810 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Chern, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, M. Wraback, C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmüller, and J. S. Speck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Wang, Y. Cao, J. Simon, J. Zhang, A. Mintairov, J. Merz, D. Hall, T. Kosel, and D. Jena, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 162110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Huggard, C. J. Shaw, J. A. Cluff, and S. R. Andrews, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2069 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. J. Ding, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, W. Shan, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager III, S. X. Li, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 4457 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

F. N. H. Robinson, Phys. Lett. A 26, 435 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. F. Levine, Phys. Rev. 7, 2600 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. Liu, J. Xu, T. Yuan, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 73, 155330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Gavrilenko and R. Q. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 61, 2632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

X.-C. Zhang, Y. Jin, K. Yang, and L. J. Schowalter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2303 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

V. Y. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmüller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Aderhold, and J. Graul, Phys. Status Solidi B 229, R1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 1989).

A. Zubrilov, in Properties of Advanced Semiconductor Materials GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe, M. E. Levinshtein, S. L. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, eds. (Wiley, 2001), pp. 49-66.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized output power (dots) and square of the effective nonlinear coefficient (solid curves) plotted as a function of (a) polarization angle for the pump beam and (b) incident angle of the pump beam. All the results were obtained on sample 3 at a pump power of 1 W . Inset, configuration for THz generation from an InN film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average output power plotted as a function of average pump power, measured on sample 3 (dots). The solid curve in the inset corresponds to the quadratic least-squares fit to our experimental results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Highest average output power for the THz radiation plotted as a function of InN film thickness, measured by us (dots). Dashed curve, fitting based on a quadratic dependence; solid curve, nonlinear least-squares fit to our data after the absorption for the pump beam is taken into consideration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Description of InN Samples Investigated in Our Experiment

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d x = 2 d 31 cos 2 φ cos θ t sin θ t
d y = 2 d 31 cos φ sin φ sin θ t
d z = d 31 cos 2 φ cos 2 θ t + d 31 sin 2 φ + d 33 cos 2 φ sin 2 θ t .
P T , a 0.6038 η 0 d eff 2 P p , a P p [ 1 exp ( α L ) ] 2 c 2 n p g n p 2 τ p 2 a p α 2 ,

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