Abstract

The phase of the amplitude-modulated radiation reflected by a Lambertian target immersed in water was measured by using a linearly and circularly polarized sounding laser beam. Different values of the water extinction coefficient in the range of 0.062m1 were realized by adding skim milk as a scattering element. It is shown that very efficient rejection of optical noise, resulting in reliable phase measurements, is accomplished with a cross-polarized and copolarized detection scheme for linear and circular polarization, respectively. The experiment demonstrates that phase measurements are very sensitive to optical noise suppression and that, as far as single scattering is the main involved mechanism, significant improvements can be achieved by adopting a polarization control on both the transmitter and the receiver stages of the apparatus.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (1)

R. E. Nothdurft and G. Yao, Appl. Opt. 45, 5531 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2002 (2)

C. L. Crofcheck, F. A. Payne, and M. P. Mengüç, Appl. Opt. 41, 2028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. De Laughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. Le Brun, B. Le June, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Aslan, M. M.

C. Crofcheck, J. Wade, J. N. Swamy, M. M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, Trans. ASAE 48, 1147 (2005).

Baba, J. S.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. De Laughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolini, L.

Cameron, B. D.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. De Laughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cariou, J.

G. Le Brun, B. Le June, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chun, C. S. L.

Chung, J. R.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. De Laughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Concannon, B.

Cote, G. L.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. De Laughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crofcheck, C.

C. Crofcheck, J. Wade, J. N. Swamy, M. M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, Trans. ASAE 48, 1147 (2005).

Crofcheck, C. L.

De Dominicis, L.

De Laughter, A. H.

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. De Laughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferri, M.

Fornetti, G.

Guarneri, M.

Katzev, I. L.

Laux, A.

Le Brun, G.

G. Le Brun, B. Le June, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le June, B.

G. Le Brun, B. Le June, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lotrian, J.

G. Le Brun, B. Le June, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mengüç, M. P.

C. Crofcheck, J. Wade, J. N. Swamy, M. M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, Trans. ASAE 48, 1147 (2005).

C. L. Crofcheck, F. A. Payne, and M. P. Mengüç, Appl. Opt. 41, 2028 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullen, L.

Ni, X.

Nothdurft, R. E.

R. E. Nothdurft and G. Yao, Appl. Opt. 45, 5531 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paglia, E.

Payne, F. A.

Poggi, C.

Prikhach, A. S.

Ricci, R.

Sadjadi, F. A.

Swamy, J. N.

C. Crofcheck, J. Wade, J. N. Swamy, M. M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, Trans. ASAE 48, 1147 (2005).

Wade, J.

C. Crofcheck, J. Wade, J. N. Swamy, M. M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, Trans. ASAE 48, 1147 (2005).

Yao, G.

R. E. Nothdurft and G. Yao, Appl. Opt. 45, 5531 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. S. Baba, J. R. Chung, A. H. De Laughter, B. D. Cameron, and G. L. Cote, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Le Brun, B. Le June, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trans. ASAE (1)

C. Crofcheck, J. Wade, J. N. Swamy, M. M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, Trans. ASAE 48, 1147 (2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup where PMT is the photomultiplier tube. Both the scanning and the receiving optics are equipped with a Glan-Thompson prism and a quarter-wave plate. The length of the test tank is L = 1.56 m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning profiles for copolarized (filled circles) and cross-polarized (open circles) detection schemes. The target is illuminated with a laser beam linearly polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence (vertically). The extinction coefficient k was increased by adding skim milk to water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning profiles for copolarized (open circles) and cross-polarized (filled circles) detection schemes. The target is illuminated with a right-handed circularly polarized laser beam. The extinction coefficient k was increased by adding skim milk to water.

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