Abstract

The key contribution is the design, analysis, and fabrication of a dual-element off-axis magnifier to improve the state of the art in catadioptric magnifiers. The catadioptric magnifier is composed of a free-form mirror and a lens with a diffractive optical element. A monocular magnifier was prototyped, to our knowledge for the first time, with the specifications of an 8mm exit pupil, 20° diagonal full field of view, 15mm eye clearance, 1.5arcmin resolution, and operating in the photopic visual regime.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 199 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Bettinger, "Spectacle-based display system," U.S. Patent 4,806,011 (February 21, 1989).
  3. I. Kasai, Y. Tanijiri, T. Endo, and H. Ueda, Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 115-118.
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Cakmakci, A. Oranchak, and J. Rolland, Proc. SPIE 6342, 63420W (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design Laboratory, Warfighter Interface Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratories, "CARD Database" (February 19, 2007) http://www.hec.afrl.af.mil/HECP/Card4.shtml.
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    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, "Imaging systems for eyeglass based display devices," U.S. patent application 11/398277 filed February 2006.

2006

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Cakmakci, A. Oranchak, and J. Rolland, Proc. SPIE 6342, 63420W (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998

Benatar, A.

L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bettinger, D.

D. Bettinger, "Spectacle-based display system," U.S. Patent 4,806,011 (February 21, 1989).

Cakmakci, O.

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Cakmakci, A. Oranchak, and J. Rolland, Proc. SPIE 6342, 63420W (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, "Imaging systems for eyeglass based display devices," U.S. patent application 11/398277 filed February 2006.

Chen, Y.

L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

I. Kasai, Y. Tanijiri, T. Endo, and H. Ueda, Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 115-118.
[CrossRef]

George, N.

Grewell, D. A.

L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, I.

I. Kasai, Y. Tanijiri, T. Endo, and H. Ueda, Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 115-118.
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oranchak, A.

O. Cakmakci, A. Oranchak, and J. Rolland, Proc. SPIE 6342, 63420W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J.

O. Cakmakci, A. Oranchak, and J. Rolland, Proc. SPIE 6342, 63420W (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, "Imaging systems for eyeglass based display devices," U.S. patent application 11/398277 filed February 2006.

Stone, T.

Tanijiri, Y.

I. Kasai, Y. Tanijiri, T. Endo, and H. Ueda, Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 115-118.
[CrossRef]

Ueda, H.

I. Kasai, Y. Tanijiri, T. Endo, and H. Ueda, Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 115-118.
[CrossRef]

Yi, A. Y.

L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Disp. Technol.

O. Cakmakci and J. Rolland, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. Li, A. Y. Yi, C. Huang, D. A. Grewell, A. Benatar, and Y. Chen, Opt. Eng. 45, 113401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

O. Cakmakci, A. Oranchak, and J. Rolland, Proc. SPIE 6342, 63420W (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design Laboratory, Warfighter Interface Division, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratories, "CARD Database" (February 19, 2007) http://www.hec.afrl.af.mil/HECP/Card4.shtml.

Zeon Corporation (February 19, 2007) http://www.zeon.co.jp/index_e.html.

D. Bettinger, "Spectacle-based display system," U.S. Patent 4,806,011 (February 21, 1989).

I. Kasai, Y. Tanijiri, T. Endo, and H. Ueda, Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC'00) (IEEE Computer Society, 2000), pp. 115-118.
[CrossRef]

O. Cakmakci and J. P. Rolland, "Imaging systems for eyeglass based display devices," U.S. patent application 11/398277 filed February 2006.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical layout and the MTF of the near-eye magnifier. (b) MTF of the dual-element solution evaluated with a 3 mm pupil. (c) Distortion grid comparing real and paraxial rays. (d) Photograph of the fabricated and assembled near-eye magnifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph through the fabricated dual-element system of (a) a color target and (b) a black and white target.

Equations (2)

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P ( x , y ) = c r 2 1 + 1 ( 1 + k ) c 2 r 2 + j = 2 10 C j x m y n , j = ( m + n ) 2 + m + 3 n 2 + 1 ,
ϕ = 2 π λ i = 1 4 c i r 2 i ,

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