Abstract

We show that sequences of femtosecond laser pulses can control the rotational Raman response of a gas mixture, giving rise to a tunable manifold of echo recurrences in the retarded nonlinear-optical response of the gas. Tailored phase masks for high-intensity ultrashort laser pulses are experimentally demonstrated using molecular rotations in the gas phase driven by optimally time-ordered pulse sequences.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. S. Warren, Science 242, 878 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Verluise, V. Laude, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, and P. Tournois, Opt. Lett. 25, 575 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. H. Zewail, Femtochemistry--Ultrafast Dynamics of the Chemical Bond (World Scientific, 1994), Vols. I, II.
  5. A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, Science 288, 824 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, Nature 417, 533 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1615 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Schenkel, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 687 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213001 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Peronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173004 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053410 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233601 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Nitsch and W. Kiefer, Opt. Commun. 23, 240 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. M. Weiner, S. De Silvestri, E. P. Ippen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 654 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

2006 (1)

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Peronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, Nature 417, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Verluise, V. Laude, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, and P. Tournois, Opt. Lett. 25, 575 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, Science 288, 824 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

1998 (3)

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1615 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

W. S. Warren, Science 242, 878 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1977 (1)

W. Nitsch and W. Kiefer, Opt. Commun. 23, 240 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Assion, A.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averbukh, I. S.

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baertschy, M.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumert, T.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergt, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisgaard, C. Z.

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Peronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

Cogdell, R.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, Nature 417, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

de Vivie-Riedle, R.

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, Science 288, 824 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dooley, P. W.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

Gerber, G.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. P.

Greene, C. H.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Herek, J. L.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, Nature 417, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hornung, T.

T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

Ippen, E. P.

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

Kiefer, B.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiefer, W.

W. Nitsch and W. Kiefer, Opt. Commun. 23, 240 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kompa, K.

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, Science 288, 824 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kompa, K.-L.

T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

Lange, R.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laude, V.

Lee, K. F.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leibscher, M.

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R.

T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

Meshulach, D.

Motzkus, M.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, Nature 417, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, Science 288, 824 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Nitsch, W.

W. Nitsch and W. Kiefer, Opt. Commun. 23, 240 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Peronne, E.

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Peronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulsen, M. D.

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Peronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

Proch, D.

T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

Rabitz, H.

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, Science 288, 824 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripoche, J.-F.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schenkel, B.

Seideman, T.

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seyfried, V.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, E. A.

D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Sokolov, A. V.

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spanner, M.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

Stapelfeldt, H.

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Peronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Strehle, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tournois, P.

Verluise, F.

Viftrup, S. S.

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Peronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

W. S. Warren, Science 242, 878 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinacht, T. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Wohlleben, W.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, Nature 417, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, D.

Zeidler, D.

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, Nature 417, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

Zewail, A. H.

A. H. Zewail, Femtochemistry--Ultrafast Dynamics of the Chemical Bond (World Scientific, 1994), Vols. I, II.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Hornung, R. Meier, D. Zeidler, K.-L. Kompa, D. Proch, and M. Motzkus, Appl. Phys. B 71, 277 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

J. Phys. B (1)

K. F. Lee, I. V. Litvinyuk, P. W. Dooley, M. Spanner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, J. Phys. B 37, L43 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. L. Herek, W. Wohlleben, R. Cogdell, D. Zeidler, and M. Motzkus, Nature 417, 533 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Nitsch and W. Kiefer, Opt. Commun. 23, 240 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Z. Bisgaard, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053410 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris and A. V. Sokolov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2894 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Leibscher, I. S. Averbukh, and H. Rabitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Z. Bisgaard, M. D. Poulsen, E. Peronne, S. S. Viftrup, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 173004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

W. S. Warren, Science 242, 878 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, Science 282, 919 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rabitz, R. de Vivie-Riedle, M. Motzkus, and K. Kompa, Science 288, 824 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. H. Zewail, Femtochemistry--Ultrafast Dynamics of the Chemical Bond (World Scientific, 1994), Vols. I, II.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized refractive index change Δ n R ( η ) I 0 of atmospheric air excited by two laser pulses with pulse widths of 50 fs , equal peak intensities, and a delay time η 1 = 1260 fs : (a) individual refractive index changes δ n R ( η ) and δ n R ( η η 1 ) induced by the first (dashed curve) and the second (open circles) pulses and (b) total refractive index change Δ n R ( η ) I 0 = δ n R ( η ) I 0 + δ n R ( η η 1 ) I 0 induced by both laser pulses. The inset shows the rotational Raman response of atmospheric air.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength shift of a probe laser pulse measured as a function of the delay time between the pump and probe pulses with a pump field consisting of two 50 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulses with an energy of 0.4 mJ each separated by a delay time of (a) σ 580 fs , (b) 930 fs , and (c) 1260 fs . The energy of the probe pulse is 0.1 mJ . Filled circles with solid curve, experimental data. Dashed curves, δ λ S ( τ ) = δ λ 1 ( τ ) + δ λ 1 ( τ + σ ) function calculated from the experimental δ λ 1 ( τ ) dependence measured with a single-pulse pump (filled circles in inset 2). Inset 1, snapshots of the spectrum of the probe pulse before the interaction (dashed curve) and after the interaction with τ 4190 fs (open circles) and τ 4350 fs (filled circles). The dashed curve in inset 1 represents the wavelength shift of a probe laser pulse calculated as a function of the delay time for the model described in the text.

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