Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a mode-locked laser-type optical atomic clock with an optically pumped cesium (Cs) gas cell. By adopting the optically pumped Cs gas cell with a double resonance method as a frequency standard, we have successfully demonstrated an ultrastable rack-mount type Cs optical atomic clock with excellent short-term stability. The obtained frequency stabilities reached as high as 1.2×1012 for τ=1s and 8.8×1014 for τ=100s for a 9.1926GHz microwave output signal.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. S. Cutler and C. L. Searle, Proc. IEEE 54, 136 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 78, 695 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Nakazawa and K. Suzuki, Opt. Lett. 26, 635 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Yakabe, K. Nito, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, Y. Koga, K. Hagimoto, and T. Ikegami, Opt. Lett. 30, 1512 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.
  7. T. Shimizu and T. Oka, Phys. Rev. A 2, 1177 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, W. Riley, and R. M. Garvey, in Proceedings of the 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2002), p. 539.
  9. G. Mileti, J. Q. Deng, F. L. Walls, D. A. Jennings, and R. E. Drullinger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 233 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Vanier and L. G. Bernier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 30, 277 (1981).
  11. M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Hagimoto, S. Ohshima, Y. Nakadan, and Y. Koga, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

K. Hagimoto, S. Ohshima, Y. Nakadan, and Y. Koga, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Mileti, J. Q. Deng, F. L. Walls, D. A. Jennings, and R. E. Drullinger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. Vanier and L. G. Bernier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 30, 277 (1981).

1970 (1)

T. Shimizu and T. Oka, Phys. Rev. A 2, 1177 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

L. S. Cutler and C. L. Searle, Proc. IEEE 54, 136 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 78, 695 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, L. G.

J. Vanier and L. G. Bernier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 30, 277 (1981).

Cutler, L. S.

L. S. Cutler and C. L. Searle, Proc. IEEE 54, 136 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J. Q.

G. Mileti, J. Q. Deng, F. L. Walls, D. A. Jennings, and R. E. Drullinger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

G. Mileti, J. Q. Deng, F. L. Walls, D. A. Jennings, and R. E. Drullinger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emmons, D.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, W. Riley, and R. M. Garvey, in Proceedings of the 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2002), p. 539.

Garvey, R. M.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, W. Riley, and R. M. Garvey, in Proceedings of the 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2002), p. 539.

Hagimoto, K.

Ikegami, T.

Jennings, D. A.

G. Mileti, J. Q. Deng, F. L. Walls, D. A. Jennings, and R. E. Drullinger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koga, Y.

Lutwak, R.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, W. Riley, and R. M. Garvey, in Proceedings of the 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2002), p. 539.

Mileti, G.

G. Mileti, J. Q. Deng, F. L. Walls, D. A. Jennings, and R. E. Drullinger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakadan, Y.

K. Hagimoto, S. Ohshima, Y. Nakadan, and Y. Koga, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Yakabe, K. Nito, M. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, Y. Koga, K. Hagimoto, and T. Ikegami, Opt. Lett. 30, 1512 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nakazawa and K. Suzuki, Opt. Lett. 26, 635 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nito, K.

Ohshima, S.

K. Hagimoto, S. Ohshima, Y. Nakadan, and Y. Koga, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohuchi, Y.

Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.

Oka, T.

T. Shimizu and T. Oka, Phys. Rev. A 2, 1177 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, N. F.

N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 78, 695 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Riley, W.

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, W. Riley, and R. M. Garvey, in Proceedings of the 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2002), p. 539.

Saburi, Y.

Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.

Searle, C. L.

L. S. Cutler and C. L. Searle, Proc. IEEE 54, 136 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

T. Shimizu and T. Oka, Phys. Rev. A 2, 1177 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Suga, H.

Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.

Suzuki, K.

Suzuki, T.

Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.

Takahei, K.

Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.

Tamura, K.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tuda, M.

Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.

Uchino, M.

Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier and L. G. Bernier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 30, 277 (1981).

Walls, F. L.

G. Mileti, J. Q. Deng, F. L. Walls, D. A. Jennings, and R. E. Drullinger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yakabe, M.

Yoshida, E.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, Electron. Lett. 30, 1603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, Electron. Lett. 32, 461 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Mileti, J. Q. Deng, F. L. Walls, D. A. Jennings, and R. E. Drullinger, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

J. Vanier and L. G. Bernier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 30, 277 (1981).

K. Hagimoto, S. Ohshima, Y. Nakadan, and Y. Koga, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. F. Ramsey, Phys. Rev. 78, 695 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Shimizu and T. Oka, Phys. Rev. A 2, 1177 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. W. Allan, Proc. IEEE 54, 221 (1966).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Cutler and C. L. Searle, Proc. IEEE 54, 136 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Lutwak, D. Emmons, W. Riley, and R. M. Garvey, in Proceedings of the 34th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems Applications Meeting (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2002), p. 539.

Y. Ohuchi, H. Suga, T. Suzuki, M. Uchino, K. Takahei, M. Tuda, and Y. Saburi, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/EIA International Frequency Control and Exhibition (IEEE, 2000), p. 651.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of an optically pumped Cs gas cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cs resonance characteristics of an optically pumped Cs gas cell. (a) Cs resonance signal, (b) first derivative signal of the Cs resonance signal shown in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration of a mode-locked laser-type optical atomic clock with an optically pumped Cs gas cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microwave output characteristics of the Cs optical atomic clock. (a) 9.192 GHz electrical clock signal, (b) tuning characteristics of the microwave frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency stability of the Cs optical atomic clock.

Metrics