Abstract

Room-temperature ultraviolet emission of Tm3+ ions at 298 (I61H63), 364 (D21H63), and 391 nm (I61H53) was obtained in Y2O3:Yb3+Tm3+ by continuous-wave diode laser excitation of 980nm. Power dependence analysis demonstrates that five- and six-photon upconversion processes populate the D21 and I61 states, respectively. We believe that the D21 population originates from the cross relaxation G41+F43H43+D21 of the Tm3+ ions, while subsequent energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tm3+ excites the D21 state to the upper I61 state. High multiphoton-induced ultraviolet emission is also expected for other trivalent rare-earth ions similar to Tm3+.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Xu, Z. Lv, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Patra, S. Saha, M. A. R. C. Alencar, N. Rakov, and G. S. Maciel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 477 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Svanberg, in Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy: Basic Aspects and Practical Applications (Springer, 2004), pp. 341-347.
  12. Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. T. Wegh and A. Meokerink, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10820 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Gruber, W. Krupke, and J. Poindexter, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 3363 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
  16. M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. R. Martín, V. D. Rodríguez, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 941 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Egger and J. Hulliger, Coord. Chem. Rev. 183, 101 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2006

F. Xu, Z. Lv, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Patra, S. Saha, M. A. R. C. Alencar, N. Rakov, and G. S. Maciel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. R. Martín, V. D. Rodríguez, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Egger and J. Hulliger, Coord. Chem. Rev. 183, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wegh and A. Meokerink, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

L. de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964

J. Gruber, W. Krupke, and J. Poindexter, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 3363 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

L. de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alencar, M. A. R. C.

A. Patra, S. Saha, M. A. R. C. Alencar, N. Rakov, and G. S. Maciel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bär, S.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Butterworth, S.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, J. A.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Daran, E.

X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, Cid B.

L. de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de S. Menezes, L.

L. de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Diening, A.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Egger, P.

P. Egger and J. Hulliger, Coord. Chem. Rev. 183, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J.

J. Gruber, W. Krupke, and J. Poindexter, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 3363 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

P. Egger and J. Hulliger, Coord. Chem. Rev. 183, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W.

J. Gruber, W. Krupke, and J. Poindexter, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 3363 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Lacoste, G.

X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lahoz, F.

X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lavín, V.

I. R. Martín, V. D. Rodríguez, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. Z.

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Z.

F. Xu, Z. Lv, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

A. Patra, S. Saha, M. A. R. C. Alencar, N. Rakov, and G. S. Maciel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martín, I. R.

I. R. Martín, V. D. Rodríguez, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mclntosh, B.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meokerink, A.

R. T. Wegh and A. Meokerink, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

L. de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moncogé, R.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz-Yagüe, A.

X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naccache, R.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pandozzi, F.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patra, A.

A. Patra, S. Saha, M. A. R. C. Alencar, N. Rakov, and G. S. Maciel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, A.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poindexter, J.

J. Gruber, W. Krupke, and J. Poindexter, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 3363 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W. P.

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rademaker, K.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rakov, N.

A. Patra, S. Saha, M. A. R. C. Alencar, N. Rakov, and G. S. Maciel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, V. D.

I. R. Martín, V. D. Rodríguez, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.

I. R. Martín, V. D. Rodríguez, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saha, S.

A. Patra, S. Saha, M. A. R. C. Alencar, N. Rakov, and G. S. Maciel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seelert, W.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, C.

X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

F. Xu, Z. Lv, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Speghini, A.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Svanberg, S.

S. Svanberg, in Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy: Basic Aspects and Practical Applications (Springer, 2004), pp. 341-347.

Varsanyi, F.

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Verdun, H.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vetrone, F.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. P.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wegh, R. T.

R. T. Wegh and A. Meokerink, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. F.

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

F. Xu, Z. Lv, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. S.

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. G.

F. Xu, Z. Lv, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Zhang, Z. G.

F. Xu, Z. Lv, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Zhao, D.

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Xu, Z. Lv, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, and Z. G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 231109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. de S. Menezes, Cid B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. Patra, S. Saha, M. A. R. C. Alencar, N. Rakov, and G. S. Maciel, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407, 477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coord. Chem. Rev.

P. Egger and J. Hulliger, Coord. Chem. Rev. 183, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

J. Gruber, W. Krupke, and J. Poindexter, J. Phys. Chem. 41, 3363 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

G. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, S. H. Huang, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, and S. Z. Lu, Opt. Commun. 242, 215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncogé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. Mclntosh, and H. Verdun, Opt. Mater. 5, 127 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. T. Wegh and A. Meokerink, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10820 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, C. Serrano, E. Daran, F. Lahoz, G. Lacoste, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, Phys. Rev. B 62, 4446 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Varsanyi and G. H. Dieke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 442 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A

I. R. Martín, V. D. Rodríguez, V. Lavín, and U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 55, 941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

S. Svanberg, in Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy: Basic Aspects and Practical Applications (Springer, 2004), pp. 341-347.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured x-ray-diffraction spectrum of Y 2 O 3 powders doped with 0.2 mol . % Tm 3 + and 3 mol . % Yb 3 + contrasted with the standard pattern of JCPDS 82 2415.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured UC fluorescent spectrum of Y 2 O 3 powders doped with 0.2 mol . % Tm 3 + and 3 mol . % Yb 3 + in the wavelength range of 250 420 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pump power dependence of the fluorescent bands centered at 298, 364, 489, and 813 nm . The diagram is on a double logarithmic scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy level diagrams of the Yb 3 + and Tm 3 + ions as well as the UC mechanism proposed to produce the UV emission bands.

Equations (1)

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I f P n ,

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