Abstract

We report on >9W transverse-fundamental-mode CW output near 3μm from a 4m heavily erbium-doped ZBLAN double-clad fiber laser pumped by a collimated 100W 975nm laser diode array. The pump threshold of the fiber laser was about 1W, and the slope efficiency was 21.3%. The peak wavelength of free running was about 2708nm at low pump power and moved to around 2785nm at high pump power. Output of 9W was obtained when the launched pump power was 42.8W. The output, however, fluctuated intensively like a pulsed laser, and the operation broke down with optical damage of the pumping end facet when the pump was increased beyond 42.8W. Therefore, alleviation of the operation fluctuation, heat management, and strengthening the pumping fiber are crucial considerations for the stable operation of 10-W-level mid-IR ZBLAN fiber lasers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, Appl. Phys. B 81, 821 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. J. Coleman and T. A. King, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 998 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, Appl. Phys. B 81, 821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, Electron. Lett. 36, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, Electron. Lett. 36, 791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 34, 2331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112 (1994).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, Electron. Lett. 27, 445 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 909 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

W. Benedict, M. Pollack, and W. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 108 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Allan, J. Y.

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, Electron. Lett. 27, 445 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Allik, T. H.

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 909 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bedo, S.

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, W.

W. Benedict, M. Pollack, and W. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 108 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bunea, G.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunea, M.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, Electron. Lett. 36, 791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

Coleman, D. J.

D. J. Coleman and T. A. King, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diening, A.

Ghisler, Ch.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, A.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112 (1994).
[PubMed]

Hibst, R.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112 (1994).
[PubMed]

Huber, G.

Hutchinson, J. A.

Jackson, S. D.

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, Electron. Lett. 36, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, Opt. Lett. 24, 1133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

X. Zhu and R. Jain, in IEEE/LEOS 2004 Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2004), paper ThP5.

Jain, R. K.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, Electron. Lett. 36, 791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Opt. Express 4, 490 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 34, 2331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Janker, B.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

Kaufmann, R.

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112 (1994).
[PubMed]

King, T. A.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, Appl. Phys. B 81, 821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Coleman and T. A. King, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, Electron. Lett. 36, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, Opt. Lett. 24, 1133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kormann, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lauto, A.

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libatique, N. J. C.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, Electron. Lett. 36, 791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, K.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meichenin, D.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 909 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, Electron. Lett. 27, 445 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poigant, H.

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, Electron. Lett. 27, 445 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 909 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, M.

W. Benedict, M. Pollack, and W. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 108 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, Electron. Lett. 36, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, Opt. Lett. 24, 1133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, E.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 34, 2331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qamar, F. Z.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, Appl. Phys. B 81, 821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rines, D. M.

Sanghera, J. S.

Schunemann, P. G.

Shaw, L. B.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, B.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Opt. Express 4, 490 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 34, 2331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tafoya, J.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, Electron. Lett. 36, 791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Opt. Express 4, 490 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thielen, P. A.

Tomlinson, W.

W. Benedict, M. Pollack, and W. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 108 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Utano, R.

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, Electron. Lett. 36, 791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu and R. Jain, in IEEE/LEOS 2004 Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2004), paper ThP5.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, Appl. Phys. B 81, 821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

J. Y. Allan, M. Monerie, and H. Poigant, Electron. Lett. 27, 445 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, Electron. Lett. 36, 223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 34, 2331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, J. Tafoya, and R. K. Jain, Electron. Lett. 35, 1338 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 909 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. J. C. Libatique, J. Tafoya, N. K. Viswanathan, R. K. Jain, and A. Cable, Electron. Lett. 36, 791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Pollnau and S. D. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Benedict, M. Pollack, and W. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 108 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. (1)

R. Kaufmann, A. Hartmann, and R. Hibst, J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol. 20, 112 (1994).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 184 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. J. Coleman and T. A. King, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Bedo, M. Pollnau, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

P. Werle, F. Slemr, K. Maurer, R. Kormann, R. Mucke, and B. Janker, Opt. Lasers Eng. 37, 104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

X. Zhu and R. Jain, in IEEE/LEOS 2004 Annual Meeting (IEEE, 2004), paper ThP5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy-level scheme of Er and Pr indicating the processes of cascade lasing, energy transfer ( ET 1 > ET 2 ), and energy-transfer upconversion ( ETU 1 > ETU 2 ) to deplete the population of I 13 2 4 and solve the population bottleneck.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the high-power heavily Er-doped ZBLAN double-clad fiber laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power as a function of launched pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output spectra of the singly Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at different pump powers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output of the singly Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at different pump powers.

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