Abstract

A method of resolving the complex conjugate ambiguity in Fourier-domain OCT is described. The complex differential spectral interferogram is obtained by simultaneous acquisition of the first and second harmonics of the ac component of the phase-modulated interferogram. The harmonics represent the imaginary and real parts of the interferogram, respectively. The complex conjugate rejection ratio is found to be at least 45dB and is limited by background noise.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds., Optical Coherence Tomography (Dekker, 2002).
  3. R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. B. Vakhtin, K. A. Peterson, W. R. Wood, and D. J. Kane, Opt. Lett. 28, 1332 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Hariharan, B. F. Oreb, and T. Eiju, Appl. Opt. 26, 2504 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Schmit and K. Creath, Appl. Opt. 34, 3610 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and T. Bajraszewski, Opt. Lett. 28, 2201 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 2162 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. V. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 13, 957 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 147 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G.-S. Han and S.-W. Kim, Appl. Opt. 33, 7321 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Targowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. Hanna and J. H. Rowland, Fourier Series, Transforms, and Boundary Value Problems (Wiley, 1990).

2005

2003

2002

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds., Optical Coherence Tomography (Dekker, 2002).

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

J. R. Hanna and J. H. Rowland, Fourier Series, Transforms, and Boundary Value Problems (Wiley, 1990).

1987

Bajraszewski, T.

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and T. Bajraszewski, Opt. Lett. 28, 2201 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Choma, M. A.

Creath, K.

de Boer, J. F.

Eiju, T.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, G.-S.

Hanna, J. R.

J. R. Hanna and J. H. Rowland, Fourier Series, Transforms, and Boundary Value Problems (Wiley, 1990).

Hariharan, P.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kane, D. J.

Kim, S.-W.

Kowalczyk, A.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Oreb, B. F.

Park, B. H.

Peterson, K. A.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowland, J. H.

J. R. Hanna and J. H. Rowland, Fourier Series, Transforms, and Boundary Value Problems (Wiley, 1990).

Sarunic, M. V.

Schmit, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Vakhtin, A. B.

Wojtkowski, M.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, W. R.

Yang, C.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, Opt. Commun. 249, 357 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, eds., Optical Coherence Tomography (Dekker, 2002).

J. R. Hanna and J. H. Rowland, Fourier Series, Transforms, and Boundary Value Problems (Wiley, 1990).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One-dimensional depth profiles with a mirror used as a sample obtained using the harmonic lock-in detection method: (a) no neutral density filter in the sample arm; (b) a 14 dB neutral density filter in the sample arm; (c) sample arm blocked. The sidebands at 1240 , 890 , 650, and 1000 μ m are artifacts caused by a periodic miscalibration of the monochromator, possibly the result of small imperfections in the scanning mechanism of the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured complex conjugate rejection ratio as a function of the scaling parameter β. The phase modulation amplitude is set to 1 ± 0.05 rad at the center optical frequency.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I SI [ ω , ϕ ( ω ) ] = I R ( ω ) + I S ( ω ) + 2 I R ( ω ) I S ( ω ) cos [ ϕ S ( ω ) ϕ R ( ω ) ϕ ( ω ) ] ,
ϕ ( ω ) = ϕ 0 ( ω ) + a m ( ω ) sin ω m t .
H 1 [ ω , ϕ 0 ( ω ) ] = 4 J 1 [ a m ( ω ) ] I R ( ω ) I S ( ω ) sin [ ϕ S ( ω ) ϕ R ( ω ) ϕ 0 ( ω ) ] ,
H 2 [ ω , ϕ 0 ( ω ) ] = 4 J 2 [ a m ( ω ) ] I R ( ω ) I S ( ω ) cos [ ϕ S ( ω ) ϕ R ( ω ) ϕ 0 ( ω ) ] ,
f ( τ ) = I 1 { β H 2 [ ω , ϕ 0 ( ω ) ] + i H 1 [ ω , ϕ 0 ( ω ) ] } .
β = J 1 [ a m ( ω ) ] J 2 [ a m ( ω ) ]

Metrics