We have developed a compact, robust adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscope using a microelectromechanical (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM). Facilitated with a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor, the MEMS-DM-based AO operates a closed-loop modal wave aberration correction for the human eye and reduces wave aberrations in most eyes to below rms. Lateral resolution is enhanced, and images reveal a clear cone mosaic near the foveal center. The significant increase in throughput allows for a confocal pinhole whose diameter is less than the Airy disc of the collection lens, thereby fully exploiting the axial resolution capabilities of the system.
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