Abstract

Tunable superprism and polarization splitting effects, based on liquid-crystal infiltrated two-dimensional photonic crystal with SiON as a background material, are demonstrated. Owing to the strong birefringence of the liquid crystal, the dispersion curves of the two polarizations are distinctly different, resulting in large splitting between the two polarizations. Extremely large splitting, as large as 80°, can be obtained. Moreover, the splitting can be tuned to a substantial degree when the optic axis of the liquid crystal is reoriented. Fully controllable, incident-angle-dependent and wavelength-dependent superprism effects are also demonstrated. This large swing in the refraction can be completely switched off by reorientation of the optic axis of the liquid crystal, thus to resemble bulk media refraction.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Joannopoulus, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals Modelling the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995), pp. 94-100 and 126.
  2. M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5658 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C.-Y. Liu and L.-W. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 045133 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 7634 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Sekine, M. Ishitobi, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, and K. Fujisawa, Liq. Cryst. 29, 355 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Springer, l995), pp. 60-63.

2005

C.-Y. Liu and L.-W. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 045133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 7634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Sekine, M. Ishitobi, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, and K. Fujisawa, Liq. Cryst. 29, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baughman, R. H.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birner, A.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-W.

C.-Y. Liu and L.-W. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 045133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doll, T.

M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, K.

C. Sekine, M. Ishitobi, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, and K. Fujisawa, Liq. Cryst. 29, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 7634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gralak, B.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Springer, l995), pp. 60-63.

Ho, K.-M.

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. S.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 7634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishitobi, M.

C. Sekine, M. Ishitobi, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, and K. Fujisawa, Liq. Cryst. 29, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwakura, K.

C. Sekine, M. Ishitobi, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, and K. Fujisawa, Liq. Cryst. 29, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jamois, C.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Janarthanan, N.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 7634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulus, D.

D. Joannopoulus, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals Modelling the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995), pp. 94-100 and 126.

John, S.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzerow, H. R.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, V.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, S. W.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Liu and L.-W. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 045133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lonar, M.

M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maclennan, J. E.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marsmann, H.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, H.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

D. Joannopoulus, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals Modelling the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995), pp. 94-100 and 126.

Mertens, G.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Minai, M.

C. Sekine, M. Ishitobi, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, and K. Fujisawa, Liq. Cryst. 29, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovi, D.

M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neubert, M.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pearsall, T. P.

M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Röder, T.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S. L.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, C.

C. Sekine, M. Ishitobi, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, and K. Fujisawa, Liq. Cryst. 29, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, Y.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, H.

H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tayeb, G.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vukovi, J.

M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C. H.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 7634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

D. Joannopoulus, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals Modelling the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995), pp. 94-100 and 126.

Wu, S. T.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 7634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Springer, l995), pp. 60-63.

Yoshino, K.

H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Lonar, D. Nedeljkovi, T. Doll, J. Vukovi, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Mertens, T. Röder, H. Matthias, H. Marsmann, H. R. Kitzerow, S. L. Schweizer, C. Jamois, R. B. Wehrspohn, and M. Neubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3036 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, and B. Gralak, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Takeda and K. Yoshino, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 43, 7634 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

C. Sekine, M. Ishitobi, K. Iwakura, M. Minai, and K. Fujisawa, Liq. Cryst. 29, 355 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Notomi, Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Liu and L.-W. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 045133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Leonard, J. P. Mondia, H. M. van Driel, O. Toader, S. John, K. Busch, A. Birner, U. Gosele, and V. Lehmann, Phys. Rev. B 61, R2389 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Springer, l995), pp. 60-63.

D. Joannopoulus, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals Modelling the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995), pp. 94-100 and 126.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Band structure for both TE and TM polarization with s orientation of the optic axis. (a) Dispersion curve at w = 0.311 for both TE (solid curves) and TM (dashed circle) polarization with s orientation of the optic axis. (b) Dispersion curve at w = 0.311 for both TE (solid circle) and TM (dashed curves) polarization with p orientation of the optic axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Splitting between TE and TM polarization as a function of incident angle ( w = 0.311 ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Propagation-angle versus incident-angle curves for w = 0.321 (bottom axis) and propagation-angle versus normalized-frequency curves at θ i = 75 ° (top axis) for TE polarization. The filled and open circles are used for propagation-angle versus incident-angle curves.

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