Abstract

We have proposed a method to recognize partially occluded three-dimensional (3D) objects by using 3D volumetric reconstruction integral imaging (II). An II system captures multiple perspectives of occluded objects by using a microlens array. The reconstruction of the occluded 3D scene and target recognition are done digitally to reduce the effects of the occlusion. To verify system performance, we have implemented an optimum filter for object recognition. Both two-dimensional (2D) images and 3D II volumetric reconstructed images are considered. The correlation results of occluded 3D images for volumetric reconstruction show substantial improvements compared with those for conventional 2D imaging of occluded images.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. O. Duda, P. Hart, and D. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Javidi, ed., Image Recognition and Classification: Algorithms, Systems, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Refreigher, V. Laude, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 19, 405 (1994).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Frauel, O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 43, 452 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Ullman, Pattern Recogn. 26, 1771 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. W. Koch and R. L. Kashyap, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 483 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Krolupper in WSCG: International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics and Visualization (UNION Agency-Science, 2004), Posters, p. 89.
  12. R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Commun. ACM 15, 11 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).
  15. B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).
  16. S.-H. Hong and B. JavidiOpt. Express 12, 4579 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Stern and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 42, 7036 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

1994

1993

J. Ullman, Pattern Recogn. 26, 1771 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. W. Koch and R. L. Kashyap, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 483 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Commun. ACM 15, 11 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1908

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Commun. ACM 15, 11 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Duda, P. Hart, and D. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, 2001).

Frauel, Y.

Hart, P.

R. O. Duda, P. Hart, and D. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, 2001).

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Commun. ACM 15, 11 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.-H.

S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Hong and B. JavidiOpt. Express 12, 4579 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, K.

K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1989).

Javidi, B.

S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Hong and B. JavidiOpt. Express 12, 4579 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yeom and B. Javidi, Opt. Express 12, 5795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Frauel, O. Matoba, E. Tajahuerce, and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 43, 452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 42, 7036 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Refreigher, V. Laude, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 19, 405 (1994).

B. Javidi, ed., Image Recognition and Classification: Algorithms, Systems, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

Kashyap, R. L.

M. W. Koch and R. L. Kashyap, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 483 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M. W.

M. W. Koch and R. L. Kashyap, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 483 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krolupper, F.

F. Krolupper in WSCG: International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics and Visualization (UNION Agency-Science, 2004), Posters, p. 89.

Laude, V.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Mahalanobis, A.

A. Mahalanobis, R. Muise, S. Stanfill, and A. Nevel, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 40, 837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matoba, O.

Muise, R.

A. Mahalanobis, R. Muise, S. Stanfill, and A. Nevel, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 40, 837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nevel, A.

A. Mahalanobis, R. Muise, S. Stanfill, and A. Nevel, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 40, 837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okano, F.

B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

Refreigher, P.

Sadjadi, F.

F. Sadjadi, ed., Selected Papers on Automatic Target Recognition (SPIE, 1999), CD-ROM.

Stanfill, S.

A. Mahalanobis, R. Muise, S. Stanfill, and A. Nevel, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 40, 837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stern, A.

Stork, D.

R. O. Duda, P. Hart, and D. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, 2001).

Tajahuerce, E.

Ullman, J.

J. Ullman, Pattern Recogn. 26, 1771 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, S.

Appl. Opt.

C. R. Acad. Sci.

G. Lippmann, C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446 (1908).

Commun. ACM

R. O. Duda and P. E. Hart, Commun. ACM 15, 11 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Display Technol.

S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, IEEE J. Display Technol. 1, 354 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst.

A. Mahalanobis, R. Muise, S. Stanfill, and A. Nevel, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 40, 837 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.

M. W. Koch and R. L. Kashyap, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9, 483 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Pattern Recogn.

J. Ullman, Pattern Recogn. 26, 1771 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Javidi, ed., Image Recognition and Classification: Algorithms, Systems, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Krolupper in WSCG: International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics and Visualization (UNION Agency-Science, 2004), Posters, p. 89.

B. Javidi and F. Okano, eds., Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, 2002).

R. O. Duda, P. Hart, and D. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley Interscience, 2001).

F. Sadjadi, ed., Selected Papers on Automatic Target Recognition (SPIE, 1999), CD-ROM.

K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1989).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) II system for a scene with a target and occlusion. (a) Recording stage. (b) 3D computational volumetric reconstruction scheme with a virtual pinhole array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Two dimensional images of the cars used in the experiments (a) scene of red, green, and blue cars (from left to right) without occlusion; (b) occluded scene of (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Examples of the reconstructed scenes at (a) z = 10.7 mm , (b) z = 44.94 mm , (c) z = 51.36 mm , (d) z = 72.76 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Correlation output intensity of the optimum filter for the 3D reconstructed scene at z = 44.94 mm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correlation Output Peak Intensities and PSR for Conventional 2D and 3D Computational Volumetric Reconstructed Image Correlations

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H ( ω ) = R ( ω ) E { N ( ω ) 2 } + S ( ω ) 2 ,
PSR = peak intensity highest sidelobe intensity .

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