Abstract

We report a procedure to detect mid-infrared single photons at 4.65μm by means of a two-stage scheme based on sum-frequency generation, by using a periodically poled lithium niobate nonlinear crystal and a silicon avalanche photodiode. An experimental investigation shows that, in addition to a high timing resolution, this technique yields a detection sensitivity of 1.24pW with 63mW of net pump power.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, G. Ripamonti, and T. A. Louis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Manor and S. Amon, Appl. Opt. 42, 4285 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Midwinter and J. Warner, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 519 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Risk, T. Gosnell, and A. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. We are assuming here that deff=16pm/V for PPLN.
  10. B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. See, for example, www.idquantique.com.

2005 (1)

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1996 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, G. Ripamonti, and T. A. Louis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. Midwinter and J. Warner, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 519 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amon, S.

Baillargeon, J. N.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. G.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, G. Ripamonti, and T. A. Louis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, G. Ripamonti, and T. A. Louis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, T.

W. Risk, T. Gosnell, and A. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karstad, K.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, G. Ripamonti, and T. A. Louis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Louis, T. A.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, G. Ripamonti, and T. A. Louis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Manor, H.

Midwinter, J.

J. Midwinter and J. Warner, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 519 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A.

W. Risk, T. Gosnell, and A. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Ripamonti, G.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, G. Ripamonti, and T. A. Louis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W.

W. Risk, T. Gosnell, and A. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, A.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Warner, J.

J. Midwinter and J. Warner, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 519 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wegmuller, M.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, S. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3680 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Midwinter and J. Warner, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 519 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

K. Karstad, A. Stefanov, M. Wegmuller, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, T. Aellen, M. Beck, and J. Faist, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 537 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 84 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, G. Ripamonti, and T. A. Louis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. Risk, T. Gosnell, and A. Nurmikko, Compact Blue-Green Lasers (Cambridge U. Press, 2003).
[CrossRef]

We are assuming here that deff=16pm/V for PPLN.

B. Saleh and M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, www.idquantique.com.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic of general experimental setup. Inset: spectrum of upconverted beam immediately after the nonlinear crystal with a 0.36 nm FWHM. The resolution of the spectrometer was set to 0.1 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histogram of photon arrival times ( t start ) with respect to QCL electric pulses ( t stop ) after several minutes.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Detection Efficiency Results

Tables Icon

Table 2 Total Noise Counts (Hz)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison with Commercially Available MIR Detectors at 4.65 μ m

Equations (3)

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η SFG 32 π 2 d eff 2 P pump exp ( α L ) L h ε 0 c λ signal 2 λ pump n SFG 2 ,
SNR 0 = h c λ signal η tot n tot ,
n BG = η tot T ( ν ) d ν exp ( h ν k T ) 1 η tot Δ ν exp ( h ν 0 k T ) 1 ,

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