Abstract

Long-lived near-infrared phosphors with high quantum yields have recently become available, making it possible to image oxygen distributions in tissue in three dimensions. By numerical simulations we demonstrate that, by using phosphorescent probes with appropriate oxygen quenching constants, one can image hypoxic phantoms in scattering media with adequate spatial resolution, employing simple time-gated measurements. The approach developed will guide experimental imaging of phosphorescence lifetime and oxygen pressure in living tissue.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. H. Hielscher, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 79 (2005), and references therein.
  2. V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 757 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Licha, Top. Curr. Chem. 222, 1 (2002).
  4. E. M. Sevick-Muraca and C. L. Burch, Opt. Lett. 19, 1928 (1994).
  5. A. Chen and E. M. Sevic-Muraca, in Proc. SPIE 2979, 129 (1997).
  6. M. A. O'Leary, D. A. Boas, X. D. Li, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, Opt. Lett. 21, 158 (1996).
  7. H. Jiang, Appl. Opt. 37, 5337 (1998).
  8. I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).
  9. E. Shives, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, Opt. Express 10, 1557 (2002).
  10. V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, Appl. Opt. 43, 564 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. F. Wilson and S. A. Vinogradov, in Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence, M.-AMycek and B.W.Pogue, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 637-662.
  12. Optical parameters of the prototype probe, Pd tetrabenzoporphyrin dendrimer: λmax(abs)=636nm, ϵ=82,000M−1cm−1, λmax(emiss)=810nm, phivphos=0.2, Kq=718mmHg−1s−1, τ0=246μs.
  13. S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. SNR here is defined as the ratio of the signal at the start of the decay (before integration) to the amplitude of the noise. The SNR of a data set (decays for all source-detector pairs) is the SNR of the decay with maximal initial intensity. In the shot-noise limit and for the model experiment described, a SNR of 50 can easily be achieved by use of, e.g., 1μs excitation pulses of 1W LED and detection over an ∼5mm2 boundary area.
  15. S. A. Vinogradov and D. F. Wilson, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 849 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. H. Hielscher, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 79 (2005), and references therein.

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).

2002 (3)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Licha, Top. Curr. Chem. 222, 1 (2002).

E. Shives, Y. Xu, and H. Jiang, Opt. Express 10, 1557 (2002).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

A. Chen and E. M. Sevic-Muraca, in Proc. SPIE 2979, 129 (1997).

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burch, C. L.

Chance, B.

Chen, A.

A. Chen and E. M. Sevic-Muraca, in Proc. SPIE 2979, 129 (1997).

Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 79 (2005), and references therein.

Jiang, H.

Kim, E.

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).

Li, X. D.

Licha, K.

K. Licha, Top. Curr. Chem. 222, 1 (2002).

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O'Leary, M. A.

Rietveld, I. B.

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

Sevic-Muraca, E. M.

A. Chen and E. M. Sevic-Muraca, in Proc. SPIE 2979, 129 (1997).

Shives, E.

Soloviev, V. Y.

Tung, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, S. A.

V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, Appl. Opt. 43, 564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).

S. A. Vinogradov and D. F. Wilson, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Wilson and S. A. Vinogradov, in Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence, M.-AMycek and B.W.Pogue, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 637-662.

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. F.

V. Y. Soloviev, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, Appl. Opt. 43, 564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Vinogradov and D. F. Wilson, Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 849 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Wilson and S. A. Vinogradov, in Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence, M.-AMycek and B.W.Pogue, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 637-662.

Xu, Y.

Yodh, A. G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

A. H. Hielscher, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16, 79 (2005), and references therein.

Inverse Probl. (1)

S. R. Arridge, Inverse Probl. 15, R41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (N.Y.) (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, Nat. Med. (N.Y.) 8, 757 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Chen and E. M. Sevic-Muraca, in Proc. SPIE 2979, 129 (1997).

Tetrahedron (1)

I. B. Rietveld, E. Kim, and S. A. Vinogradov, Tetrahedron 59, 3821 (2003).

Top. Curr. Chem. (1)

K. Licha, Top. Curr. Chem. 222, 1 (2002).

Other (3)

SNR here is defined as the ratio of the signal at the start of the decay (before integration) to the amplitude of the noise. The SNR of a data set (decays for all source-detector pairs) is the SNR of the decay with maximal initial intensity. In the shot-noise limit and for the model experiment described, a SNR of 50 can easily be achieved by use of, e.g., 1μs excitation pulses of 1W LED and detection over an ∼5mm2 boundary area.

D. F. Wilson and S. A. Vinogradov, in Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence, M.-AMycek and B.W.Pogue, eds. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), pp. 637-662.

Optical parameters of the prototype probe, Pd tetrabenzoporphyrin dendrimer: λmax(abs)=636nm, ϵ=82,000M−1cm−1, λmax(emiss)=810nm, phivphos=0.2, Kq=718mmHg−1s−1, τ0=246μs.

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