Abstract

We propose a new design for fabrication of a highly power-efficient double axicon to generate self-imaged three-dimensional intensity voids along the propagation of a beam. The conventional conical structure of an axicon is modified and shaped like an axiconlike structure with a double-gradient surface profile. The gradient conical surfaces generate Bessel beams with varying radial wave vectors that are superimposed and interfere to generate a sequence of three-dimensional intensity voids. The proposed element was fabricated using electron-beam lithography, and experimental verification of the design is reported.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
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W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, K. Dholakia, L.-S. Zhang, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Adams, C. S.

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahluwalia, B. P. S.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, and S.-H. Tao, Opt. Commun. 238, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, and S.-H. Tao, Opt. Express 12, 5172 (2004).
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Arlt, J.

Bouchal, Z.

Z. Bouchal, R. Horak, and J. Wagner, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carcole, E.

Chávez-Cerda, S.

Chen, Z.

Cheong, W. C.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, K. Dholakia, L.-S. Zhang, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottrell, D. M.

Davidson, N.

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. A.

Dholakia, K.

W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, K. Dholakia, L.-S. Zhang, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

Gomez-Reino, C.

Herman, R. M.

Hickmann, J. M.

Horak, R.

Z. Bouchal, R. Horak, and J. Wagner, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jaroszewicz, Z.

Kamijoh, T.

K. Shinozaki, C.-O. Xu, H. Sasaki, and T. Kamijoh, Opt. Commun. 133, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasevich, M.

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khaykovich, L.

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejczyk, A.

Kujawski, A.

Lee, H. J.

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W. M.

W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, K. Dholakia, L.-S. Zhang, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, J. H.

Meneses-Nava, M. A.

Nelson, J. S.

Niu, H. B.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozeri, R.

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

Peng, X.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Sasaki, H.

K. Shinozaki, C.-O. Xu, H. Sasaki, and T. Kamijoh, Opt. Commun. 133, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shinozaki, K.

K. Shinozaki, C.-O. Xu, H. Sasaki, and T. Kamijoh, Opt. Commun. 133, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sochacki, J.

Staronski, L. R.

Tao, S.-H.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, and S.-H. Tao, Opt. Express 12, 5172 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, and S.-H. Tao, Opt. Commun. 238, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

Z. Bouchal, R. Horak, and J. Wagner, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, K. Dholakia, L.-S. Zhang, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, T. A.

Xu, C.-O.

K. Shinozaki, C.-O. Xu, H. Sasaki, and T. Kamijoh, Opt. Commun. 133, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, and S.-H. Tao, Opt. Commun. 238, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, and S.-H. Tao, Opt. Express 12, 5172 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, K. Dholakia, L.-S. Zhang, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.-S.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, K. Dholakia, L.-S. Zhang, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. C. Cheong, W. M. Lee, X.-C. Yuan, K. Dholakia, L.-S. Zhang, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, L.-S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

Z. Bouchal, R. Horak, and J. Wagner, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X.-C. Yuan, and S.-H. Tao, Opt. Commun. 238, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Shinozaki, C.-O. Xu, H. Sasaki, and T. Kamijoh, Opt. Commun. 133, 300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. Ozeri, L. Khaykovich, and N. Davidson, Phys. Rev. A 59, R1750 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Davidson, H. J. Lee, C. S. Adams, M. Kasevich, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1311 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic diagrams of (a) a conventional axicon and (b) the proposed double-axicon (not to scale). The double-axicon possesses two gradients that yield lower and upper wedge angles of 0.1 ° ( γ 1 ) and 0.08 ° ( γ 2 ) , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Longitudinal beam formation by an axicon and a double-axicon (depicted in Fig. 1). Each unit of the vertical axis is 15 μ m , and each unit of the horizontal axis is 4 mm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a), (c), (e), (g) Simulated free-space propagation of the bottle beam generated using the proposed double-axicon. (b), (d), (f), (h) Corresponding transverse intensity profiles. The vertical and horizontal axes are 4 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Scanned image of a Deteck 3 surface profiler measurement of the fabricated micro-double-axicon. The horizontal axis is in micrometers, and the vertical axis is 100 nm. The ideal and fabricated (actual) profiles of the double-axicon are depicted by the dotted and the solid curves, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental generation of the self-imaged three-dimensional intensity voids using fabricated double-axicon at a distance of (a) 27, (b) 30, (c) 36, and (d) 42 cm . The vertical and horizontal axes are 5 mm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) Double-axion-enabled optical tweezers system used to transversely trap a low-index microparticle of 10 μ m diameter.

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