Abstract

A confocal reflectance theta line scanning microscope demonstrates imaging of nuclear and cellular detail in human epidermis in vivo. Experimentally measured line-spread functions determine the instrumental optical section thickness to be 1.7±0.1μm and the lateral resolution to be 1.0±0.1μm. Within human dermis (through full-thickness epidermis), the measured section thickness is 9.2±1.7μm and the lateral resolution is 1.7±0.1μm. An illumination line is scanned directly in the pupil of the objective lens, and the backscattered descanned light is detected with a linear array, such that the theta line scanner consists of only seven optical components.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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1999

1995

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyle, A.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cavanagh, H. D.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Corcuff, P.

P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, S.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jester, J. V.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koester, C. J.

Lemp, M. A.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, J. L.

P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lindek, S.

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, L.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

New, K. C.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Petroll, W. M.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogomentich, F.

Stelzer, E. H.

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb and F. Rogomentich, Appl. Opt. 38, 4870 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Dermatology (Basel, Switz.)

P. Corcuff and J. L. Leveque, Dermatology (Basel, Switz.) 186, 50 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scanning

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyle, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Confocal theta line scanning microscope. The primary line is formed in the y direction (perpendicular to the page) at the focus of the objective lens and is used for imaging. The ratio u r determines sectioning, lateral resolution, and contrast, and was chosen to be 0.5.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental plot of an axial confocal theta line-spread function (LSF).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of human epidermis in vivo. Scale bars, 50 μ m .

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