Abstract

We present a moving-scatterer-sensitive optical Doppler tomography (MSS-ODT) technique for in vivo blood flow imaging in real time by using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography system. In MSS-ODT the influence of stationary scatterers is suppressed by subtracting adjacent complex axial scans before calculating the Doppler frequency shift. We demonstrate that MSS-ODT is a useful technique for accurate determination of blood vessel size by imaging flow in a small capillary tube with a 75μm inner diameter. The flow profile obtained with MSS-ODT yields a substantially more accurate tube diameter than that obtained with the conventional phase-resolved method, which underestimates the diameter by about 23%. We also demonstrate that MSS-ODT provides improved sensitivity over the conventional phase-resolved method for imaging in vivo blood flow in small vessels in a mouse ear.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2003

2002

2000

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Choma, M. A.

de Boer, J. F.

Ding, Z.

Drexler, W.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malekafzali, A.

Miao, J.

Milner, T. E.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Rollins, A. M.

Sarunic, M. V.

Saxer, C.

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targowski, P.

Tearney, G. J.

van Gemert, M. J.

Wang, X.

Welch, A. J.

Westphal, V.

White, B. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiang, S.

Yang, C. H.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhao, Y.

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber optically based SD-OCT system. PC, polarization controller; L1, L2, lenses; P, prism pair; NDF, neutral-density filter; M, mirror; DG, transmission diffraction grating; CL, camera lens; LSCCD, line-scan CCD; FG, function generator; Sync, galvanometer scanner drive synchronization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Block diagram of signal processing for MSS-ODT. (b) Power transfer function H ( f ) 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Doppler flow images of Intralipid flow in a capillary tube of a 75 - μ m inner diameter obtained by (a) PR-ODT and (b) MSS-ODT. (c) Structural image. The size of the images is 1.16 × 1.20 mm (transverse x axial). (d) Experimental flow profiles obtained by the two techniques and the fitted parabolic profiles along the region demarked by white arrows shown in (a) and (b). Scale bars in (a), (b), and (c) represent 100 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Doppler flow images of blood flow in a mouse ear obtained by (a) PR-ODT and (b) MSS-ODT. (c) Structural image. The size of the images is 1.16 × 1.20 mm (transverse x axial). (d) Experimental flow profiles obtained by the two techniques along the region denoted by white arrows shown in (a) and (b). Scale bars in (a), (b), and (c) represent 100 μ m .

Equations (2)

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M ̃ j ( z ) = Γ ̃ j + 1 ( z ) Γ ̃ j ( z ) .
f ( m , n ) = 1 2 π T tan 1 { Im [ z = m m + K j = n n + N M ̃ j ( z ) M ̃ j + 1 * ( z ) ] Re [ z = m m + K j = n n + N M ̃ j ( z ) M ̃ j + 1 * ( z ) ] } ,

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