Abstract

From an analysis of new hemoglobin solution transmission spectra at various oxygen saturations (SO2), path lengths, and pH, we find the determination of SO2 by using the classical oximetry technique to be poorly calibrated. We used this data set to develop a proposed method for SO2 determination based on the spectral shift of the hemoglobin transmission minimum between 475 and 510 nm. The method does not require accurate knowledge of hemoglobin extinction coefficients and is linear in relation to SO2 despite changes in path length, pH, or hemoglobin concentration.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. L. Drabkin and J. H. Austin, J. Biol. Chem. 112, 105 (1935).
  2. O. W. van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Royal Van Gorcum, Ltd., 1970).
  3. S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 24, 118 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. C. Finlay, and T. H. Foster, Opt. Lett. 29, 965 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. A. Eaton, E. R. Henry, J. Hofrichter, and A. Mozzareli, Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 351 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. W. Severinghaus, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol. 46, 599 (1979).
  8. N. A. Rosen, W. E. Charash, and E. F. Hirsch, J. Surg. Res. 106, 282 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. H. Smith, Appl. Opt. 38, 258 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, Appl. Opt. 39, 1183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, Circulation 27, 375 (1963).
    [PubMed]
  13. A. J. Cohen and R. A. Laing, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 23, 391 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. C. Delori, Appl. Opt. 27, 1113 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, J. Appl. Physiol. 94, 891 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  17. J. S. Tiedeman, S. E. Kirk, S. Srinivas, and J. M. Beach, Ophthalmology 105, 31 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, J. B. Woodruff, and L. W. Hillman, in Proc. SPIE 4245, 135 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. R. Denninghoff and M. H. Smith, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 1 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Prahl, 'Tabulated molar extinction coefficients for hemoglobin in water,' 1998, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html.

2005

J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 24, 118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, J. Appl. Physiol. 94, 891 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002

N. A. Rosen, W. E. Charash, and E. F. Hirsch, J. Surg. Res. 106, 282 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, J. B. Woodruff, and L. W. Hillman, in Proc. SPIE 4245, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

M. H. Smith, Appl. Opt. 38, 258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Eaton, E. R. Henry, J. Hofrichter, and A. Mozzareli, Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

J. S. Tiedeman, S. E. Kirk, S. Srinivas, and J. M. Beach, Ophthalmology 105, 31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1979

J. W. Severinghaus, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol. 46, 599 (1979).

1976

A. J. Cohen and R. A. Laing, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 23, 391 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, Circulation 27, 375 (1963).
[PubMed]

1935

D. L. Drabkin and J. H. Austin, J. Biol. Chem. 112, 105 (1935).

Austin, J. H.

D. L. Drabkin and J. H. Austin, J. Biol. Chem. 112, 105 (1935).

Balaguer, J.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beach, J. M.

J. S. Tiedeman, S. E. Kirk, S. Srinivas, and J. M. Beach, Ophthalmology 105, 31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charash, W. E.

N. A. Rosen, W. E. Charash, and E. F. Hirsch, J. Surg. Res. 106, 282 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipman, R. A.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, A. J.

A. J. Cohen and R. A. Laing, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 23, 391 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collette, H.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Delpy, D. T.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denninghoff, K. R.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, J. Appl. Physiol. 94, 891 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, J. B. Woodruff, and L. W. Hillman, in Proc. SPIE 4245, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff and M. H. Smith, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, Appl. Opt. 39, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drabkin, D. L.

D. L. Drabkin and J. H. Austin, J. Biol. Chem. 112, 105 (1935).

Eaton, W. A.

W. A. Eaton, E. R. Henry, J. Hofrichter, and A. Mozzareli, Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

Foster, T. H.

Frayser, R.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, Circulation 27, 375 (1963).
[PubMed]

Hammer, M.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heard, S. O.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, E. R.

W. A. Eaton, E. R. Henry, J. Hofrichter, and A. Mozzareli, Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hickam, J. B.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, Circulation 27, 375 (1963).
[PubMed]

Hillman, L. W.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, J. Appl. Physiol. 94, 891 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, J. B. Woodruff, and L. W. Hillman, in Proc. SPIE 4245, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, Appl. Opt. 39, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, E. F.

N. A. Rosen, W. E. Charash, and E. F. Hirsch, J. Surg. Res. 106, 282 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofrichter, J.

W. A. Eaton, E. R. Henry, J. Hofrichter, and A. Mozzareli, Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, C. E.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Idwasi, P. O.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jester, P. M.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. G.

J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 24, 118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk, S. E.

J. S. Tiedeman, S. E. Kirk, S. Srinivas, and J. M. Beach, Ophthalmology 105, 31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konigsdorffer, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraft, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, F.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laing, R. A.

A. J. Cohen and R. A. Laing, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 23, 391 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, S.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 24, 118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lompado, A.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, J. Appl. Physiol. 94, 891 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, J. B. Woodruff, and L. W. Hillman, in Proc. SPIE 4245, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, Appl. Opt. 39, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mozzareli, A.

W. A. Eaton, E. R. Henry, J. Hofrichter, and A. Mozzareli, Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S.

S. Prahl, 'Tabulated molar extinction coefficients for hemoglobin in water,' 1998, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html.

Rosen, N. A.

N. A. Rosen, W. E. Charash, and E. F. Hirsch, J. Surg. Res. 106, 282 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, J. C.

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, Circulation 27, 375 (1963).
[PubMed]

Rue, L. W.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salm, T. J.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweitzer, D.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Severinghaus, J. W.

J. W. Severinghaus, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol. 46, 599 (1979).

Simsir, S. A.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. H.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, J. Appl. Physiol. 94, 891 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, J. B. Woodruff, and L. W. Hillman, in Proc. SPIE 4245, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff and M. H. Smith, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, Appl. Opt. 39, 1183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, Appl. Opt. 38, 258 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soller, B. R.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

J. S. Tiedeman, S. E. Kirk, S. Srinivas, and J. M. Beach, Ophthalmology 105, 31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strobel, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thamm, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiedeman, J. S.

J. S. Tiedeman, S. E. Kirk, S. Srinivas, and J. M. Beach, Ophthalmology 105, 31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Assendelft, O. W.

O. W. van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Royal Van Gorcum, Ltd., 1970).

Woodruff, J. B.

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, J. B. Woodruff, and L. W. Hillman, in Proc. SPIE 4245, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, M.

J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 24, 118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Circulation

J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, and J. C. Ross, Circulation 27, 375 (1963).
[PubMed]

Crit. Care Med.

B. R. Soller, P. O. Idwasi, J. Balaguer, S. Levin, S. A. Simsir, T. J. Vander Salm, H. Collette, and S. O. Heard, Crit. Care Med. 31, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.

J. G. Kim, M. Xia, and H. Liu, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 24, 118 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

A. J. Cohen and R. A. Laing, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 23, 391 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Konigsdorffer, and J. Strobel, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46, 1454 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol.

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, A. Lompado, and L. W. Hillman, J. Appl. Physiol. 94, 891 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol.

J. W. Severinghaus, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respir., Environ. Exercise Physiol. 46, 599 (1979).

J. Biol. Chem.

D. L. Drabkin and J. H. Austin, J. Biol. Chem. 112, 105 (1935).

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. R. Denninghoff and M. H. Smith, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Surg. Res.

N. A. Rosen, W. E. Charash, and E. F. Hirsch, J. Surg. Res. 106, 282 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care

K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, and L. W. Rue, J. Trauma: Inj., Infect., Crit. Care 43, 29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Struct. Biol.

W. A. Eaton, E. R. Henry, J. Hofrichter, and A. Mozzareli, Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 351 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

J. S. Tiedeman, S. E. Kirk, S. Srinivas, and J. M. Beach, Ophthalmology 105, 31 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, A. Lompado, J. B. Woodruff, and L. W. Hillman, in Proc. SPIE 4245, 135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Prahl, 'Tabulated molar extinction coefficients for hemoglobin in water,' 1998, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html.

O. W. van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Royal Van Gorcum, Ltd., 1970).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of samples with [ Hb ] = 30 or 15 g dL , 10 different S O 2 values, a pH = 7.4 , and a path length of 200 μ m are shown. The minimum for each spectrum is identified with an arrow, and these minima move laterally as S O 2 changes independent of concentration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of 12.5 g dL Hb samples with a pH of 7.1 and a path length of 200 or 100 μ m , and a pH of 6.6 and a path length of 100 μ m . The minima in this group of spectra are marked with an arrow and move laterally as S O 2 changes independent of path length or pH changes. Compare these spectra with those in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Minima from 50 hemoglobin samples with [ Hb ] = 6.6 30 g dL , pH = 6.6 , 7.1, or 7.4, and path lengths of 100 or 200 μ m are shown here with the corresponding S O 2 . The minimum is linear with changing S O 2 and is resilient with changing path length, concentration, and pH in the physiologic range.

Equations (1)

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OD = ( c Hb O 2 ε Hb O 2 + c Hb ε Hb ) L .

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