Abstract

We report saturable absorber materials in the 1.5μm band that consist of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) polymers with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). A very uniform dispersion of SWNT in PMMA and PS polymers has been realized by using chlorobenzene or tetrahydrofuran as a dispersion solvent. These materials, which are as thick as 1mm, are easily optically polished on both surfaces. This was difficult to achieve with previous thin-film materials. By incorporating PMMA/SWNT as a saturable absorber, a 171fs pulse is successfully generated in a passively mode-locked fiber laser.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, 'Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof,' Japan patent 2001-320383 (October 18, 2001).
  3. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.
  4. Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.
  5. Y. Koike, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 1996), paper MoB.3.1.
  6. P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, in European Conference on Optical Communications (AEI, 2003), postdeadline paper Th4.2.5.

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achiba, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, 'Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof,' Japan patent 2001-320383 (October 18, 2001).

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, in European Conference on Optical Communications (AEI, 2003), postdeadline paper Th4.2.5.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ausman, K. D.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boul, P.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, R. K.

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bronikowski, M. J.

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colbert, D. T.

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eklund, P. C.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ericson, L. M.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haddon, R. C.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamon, M. A.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haroz, E.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, C.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itanani, T.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Itatani, H.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Jablonski, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Kataura, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, 'Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof,' Japan patent 2001-320383 (October 18, 2001).

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, in European Conference on Optical Communications (AEI, 2003), postdeadline paper Th4.2.5.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Kikuchi, K.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Kintaka, K.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 1996), paper MoB.3.1.

Kuper, C.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nikolaev, P.

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O'Connell, M. J.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rao, A. M.

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rohmund, F.

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Rozhin, A. G.

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, in European Conference on Optical Communications (AEI, 2003), postdeadline paper Th4.2.5.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Sakakibara, Y.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, in European Conference on Optical Communications (AEI, 2003), postdeadline paper Th4.2.5.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, 'Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof,' Japan patent 2001-320383 (October 18, 2001).

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Smalley, R. E.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. A.

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soe, W. M.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Tatsuura, S.

Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, 'Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof,' Japan patent 2001-320383 (October 18, 2001).

Tokumoto, M.

Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, 'Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof,' Japan patent 2001-320383 (October 18, 2001).

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, in European Conference on Optical Communications (AEI, 2003), postdeadline paper Th4.2.5.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Tour, J.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lasers (2)

P. Nikolaev, M. J. Bronikowski, R. K. Bradley, F. Rohmund, D. T. Colbert, K. A. Smith, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 313, 91 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O'Connell, P. Boul, L. M. Ericson, C. Huffman, Y. Wang, E. Haroz, C. Kuper, J. Tour, K. D. Ausman, and R. E. Smalley, Chin. Phys. Lasers 342, 265 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Chen, M. A. Hamon, H. Hu, Y. Chen, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, and R. C. Haddon, Science 282, 95 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, in European Conference on Optical Communications (AEI, 2003), postdeadline paper Th4.2.5.

Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, 'Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof,' Japan patent 2001-320383 (October 18, 2001).

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2003), postdeadline paper PD44.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itanani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEE, 2005), paper Mo3.4.1.

Y. Koike, in European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 1996), paper MoB.3.1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of the SWNT/PMMA composite and pure SWNT. S 1 absorption of SWNT is also plotted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intermolecular forces between SWNT and (a) PMMA and (b) PS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with SWNT/PMMA composite as a saturable absorber. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PM, polarization maintaining.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PMMA/SWNT optical device. (a) Overview of the saturable absorber, (b) optically polished PMMA/SWNT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser output characteristics: (a) autocorrelation waveform, (b) its spectrum.

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