Abstract

We demonstrate production of continuous coherent blue laser light by using a five-level system in rubidium vapor. Two low-power lasers, at 780 and 776nm, induce strong atomic coherence in the 5S5P5D states. The atoms decay to the 6P excited state, from which stimulated emission produces a coherent blue (420nm) beam. We have coupled both ground-state hyperfine levels, effecting coherence between four levels. The coherent blue output is enhanced by several mechanisms, including stronger coupling to a larger fraction of the atomic population, operation at a detuning such that the vapor is nominally transparent to the 780nm pump field, reduced losses owing to optical pumping, and optimal phase matching. We report experimental findings and compare them with results from a semiclassical Maxwell–Bloch model.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 398, 594 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4032 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. R. E. Scholten, T. J. O'Kane, T. R. Mackin, T. A. Hunt, and P. M. Farrell, Aust. J. Phys. 52, 493 (1999).

2005 (1)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801R (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Mompart and R. Corbalán, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, R7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 398, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Scholten, T. J. O'Kane, T. R. Mackin, T. A. Hunt, and P. M. Farrell, Aust. J. Phys. 52, 493 (1999).

1998 (1)

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1977 (1)

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[CrossRef]

André, A.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. XXXV, pp. 259-354.

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 398, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corbalán, R.

J. Mompart and R. Corbalán, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, R7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 398, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisaman, M. D.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ezekiel, S.

Farrell, P. M.

R. E. Scholten, T. J. O'Kane, T. R. Mackin, T. A. Hunt, and P. M. Farrell, Aust. J. Phys. 52, 493 (1999).

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hakuta, K.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 398, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 398, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hawthorn, C. J.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P. R.

Hollberg, L.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801R (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, T. A.

R. E. Scholten, T. J. O'Kane, T. R. Mackin, T. A. Hunt, and P. M. Farrell, Aust. J. Phys. 52, 493 (1999).

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801R (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mackin, T. R.

R. E. Scholten, T. J. O'Kane, T. R. Mackin, T. A. Hunt, and P. M. Farrell, Aust. J. Phys. 52, 493 (1999).

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marmet, L.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mompart, J.

J. Mompart and R. Corbalán, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, R7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O'Kane, T. J.

R. E. Scholten, T. J. O'Kane, T. R. Mackin, T. A. Hunt, and P. M. Farrell, Aust. J. Phys. 52, 493 (1999).

Ontai, G. P.

Phillips, D. F.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholten, R. E.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Scholten, T. J. O'Kane, T. R. Mackin, T. A. Hunt, and P. M. Farrell, Aust. J. Phys. 52, 493 (1999).

Scully, M. O.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801R (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Shore, B. W.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stoicheff, B. P.

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theuer, H.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Wal, C. H.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Violino, P.

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Walsworth, R. L.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, K. P.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801R (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zubairy, M. S.

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Aust. J. Phys. (1)

R. E. Scholten, T. J. O'Kane, T. R. Mackin, T. A. Hunt, and P. M. Farrell, Aust. J. Phys. 52, 493 (1999).

J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. (1)

J. Mompart and R. Corbalán, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, R7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, Nature 398, 594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 65, 051801R (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. E. Harris, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4032 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Hakuta, L. Marmet, and B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Science 301, 196 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), Vol. XXXV, pp. 259-354.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Experimental arrangement. Two lasers (780 and 776 nm ) excite Rb 85 on the 5 S 5 P 5 D transitions, and coherent 420 nm radiation is emitted. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Blue output power for several pump laser detunings at T 150 ° C . The maximum output was observed when the 780 and 776 nm input fields were orthogonally polarized, with δ 780 2 GHz . The two lowest curves show frequency reference spectra, and the inset shows two-slit diffraction (slit separation, 0.25 mm ; width 0.04 mm ) from the 420 nm beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Blue output spectra from a Fabry–Perot etalon ( 1.5 GHz free spectral range) normalized to spectrum B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Relative gain and refractive-index dependence of blue transition on δ 780 in the five-level model, calculated from Im ( ρ i j ) and F Re ( ρ 5 S F , j ) n 1 , respectively, where F = 2 , 3 and j is 6 P ( 420 nm ) or 5 P ( 780 nm ) .

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