Abstract

Using direct laser writing, we fabricate photoresist templates for 3D–2D–3D photonic crystal heterostructures for what we believe to be the first time. The optical properties of these structures are directly compared with the theoretical ideal, revealing good agreement and hence good sample quality. This provides an experimental starting point for the microfabrication and testing of broadband, 3D air–waveguide microcircuitry in photonic bandgap materials.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, Nature 386, 143 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, Nature 407, 608 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Istrate, M. Charbonneau-Lefort, and E. H. Sargent, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075121 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Chutinan, S. John, and O. Toader, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 123901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Chutinan and S. John, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2, 41 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 71, 026605 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161316 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.
  9. H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Straub and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1824 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 71, 026605 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, A. Kaso, and S. John, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. John, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Chutinan, S. John, and O. Toader, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

E. Istrate, M. Charbonneau-Lefort, and E. H. Sargent, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, Nature 407, 608 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, Nature 386, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau-Lefort, M.

E. Istrate, M. Charbonneau-Lefort, and E. H. Sargent, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 71, 026605 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. John, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan, S. John, and O. Toader, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, Nature 407, 608 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, A. Kaso, and S. John, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Fan, S.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, Nature 386, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Hermatschweiler, M.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, Nature 407, 608 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Istrate, E.

E. Istrate, M. Charbonneau-Lefort, and E. H. Sargent, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, Nature 386, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 71, 026605 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, A. Kaso, and S. John, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. John, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan, S. John, and O. Toader, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Kaso, A.

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, A. Kaso, and S. John, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, Nature 407, 608 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozin, G. A.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez-Willard, F.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Sargent, E. H.

E. Istrate, M. Charbonneau-Lefort, and E. H. Sargent, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

Sun, H.-B.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tétreault, N.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Toader, O.

A. Chutinan, S. John, and O. Toader, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, Nature 386, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, A. Kaso, and S. John, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (to be published), DOI 10.1002/adma. 200501674.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, A. Kaso, and S. John, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nat. Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, Nature 386, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, Nature 407, 608 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

A. Chutinan and S. John, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 2, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. B 72, 161316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Istrate, M. Charbonneau-Lefort, and E. H. Sargent, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. Chutinan and S. John, Phys. Rev. E 71, 026605 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Chutinan, S. John, and O. Toader, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 123901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, Solid State Commun. 89, 413 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of a 3D–2D–3D photonic crystal heterostructure. The foreground corresponds to the first set of experiments (i) presented in Fig. 2, and the background corresponds to the second set of experiments (ii) shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) Gallery of different 3D–2D photonic crystal heterostructures comprising waveguide structures, all fabricated by DLW. The top 3D photonic crystal has deliberately not been written (compare Fig. 1). Note the good relative alignment of the 3D and the 2D photonic crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical transmittance spectra of a structure similar to those in Fig. 2, but without waveguides and with a top 3D woodpile photonic crystal added (compare Fig. 1). (a) Selected individual spectra: θ = 0 ° , p polarization (dotted curve); θ = 25 ° , s polarization (solid curve); θ = 50 ° , p polarization (dashed curve). (b) Gray-scale plot of the transmittance versus angle and wavelength for s polarization. The arrows in (a) and the dotted ellipse in (b) mark the spectral features associated with the 2D photonic crystal layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated transmittance spectra corresponding to the structure and the parameters of the experiment (Fig. 3). Note the good overall agreement with the experiment.

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