Abstract

We demonstrate a new scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a confocal optical microscope. Our scheme improves the spatial resolution in the direction of the optical axis. The confocal optical microscope, by use of a four-wave mixing geometry, can obtain optical information about weakly absorptive objects with organic dyes. Owing to the third-order nonlinear dependence of absorptive objects, the optical signal is confined to the focal region of the focusing incident beam.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

Bigelow, C. E.

Boseck, S.

Briggs, A.

Conover, D. L.

Egami, C.

N. Kobayashi and C. Egami, Opt. Lett. 30, 299 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kobayashi, C. Egami, and Y. Kawata, Opt. Rev. 10, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foster, T. H.

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang and J. G. Walker, Opt. Commun. 238, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

N. Kobayashi, C. Egami, and Y. Kawata, Opt. Rev. 10, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

N. Kobayashi and C. Egami, Opt. Lett. 30, 299 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kobayashi, C. Egami, and Y. Kawata, Opt. Rev. 10, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loriette, V.

Mertz, J.

Moreau, J.

Pons, T.

So, P. T. C.

Walker, J. G.

S. Jiang and J. G. Walker, Opt. Commun. 238, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weise, W.

Wilson, T.

Zinin, P.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the confocal nonlinear optical microscope: HM1, HM2, HM3, half mirrors; M1, M2, M3, mirrors; PL1, PL2, polarizers; L1, L2, spherical lenses; AN, analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profile of the confocal signal from a mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profile of the confocal signal from a weakly absorptive object.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile of the confocal nonlinear optical signal from a weakly absorptive object.

Equations (10)

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y y z z = z z y y = z z x x = x x z z = x x y y = y y x x ,
y z y z = z y z y = z x z x = x z x z = x y x y = y x y x ,
y z z y = z y y z = z x x z = x z z x = x y y x = y x x y ;
x x x x = y y y y = z z z z = x x y y + x y x y + x y y x .
χ x x y y ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) = χ y y x x ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) ,
χ x y x y ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) = χ y x y x ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) ,
χ x y y x ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) = χ y x x y ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) ,
χ x x x x ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) = χ y y y y ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) .
P ( 3 ) = ϵ 0 χ ( 3 ) : E E E ,
U ( X , Y , Z ) = P ( k x , k y ) P ( k x , k y ) exp { i [ ( k x k x ) X + ( k y k y ) Y ] } exp [ i ( k z k z ) Z ] [ 1 i k 0 ( 2 n + 1 ) A n P n ( cos γ k ) ] d k x d k y d k x d k y ,

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