Abstract

We demonstrate a new scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a confocal optical microscope. Our scheme improves the spatial resolution in the direction of the optical axis. The confocal optical microscope, by use of a four-wave mixing geometry, can obtain optical information about weakly absorptive objects with organic dyes. Owing to the third-order nonlinear dependence of absorptive objects, the optical signal is confined to the focal region of the focusing incident beam.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005

2004

2003

1998

1996

Bigelow, C. E.

Boseck, S.

Briggs, A.

Conover, D. L.

Egami, C.

N. Kobayashi and C. Egami, Opt. Lett. 30, 299 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kobayashi, C. Egami, and Y. Kawata, Opt. Rev. 10, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foster, T. H.

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang and J. G. Walker, Opt. Commun. 238, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

N. Kobayashi, C. Egami, and Y. Kawata, Opt. Rev. 10, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

N. Kobayashi and C. Egami, Opt. Lett. 30, 299 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kobayashi, C. Egami, and Y. Kawata, Opt. Rev. 10, 262 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loriette, V.

Mertz, J.

Moreau, J.

Pons, T.

So, P. T. C.

Walker, J. G.

S. Jiang and J. G. Walker, Opt. Commun. 238, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weise, W.

Wilson, T.

Zinin, P.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the confocal nonlinear optical microscope: HM1, HM2, HM3, half mirrors; M1, M2, M3, mirrors; PL1, PL2, polarizers; L1, L2, spherical lenses; AN, analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profile of the confocal signal from a mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Profile of the confocal signal from a weakly absorptive object.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile of the confocal nonlinear optical signal from a weakly absorptive object.

Equations (10)

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y y z z = z z y y = z z x x = x x z z = x x y y = y y x x ,
y z y z = z y z y = z x z x = x z x z = x y x y = y x y x ,
y z z y = z y y z = z x x z = x z z x = x y y x = y x x y ;
x x x x = y y y y = z z z z = x x y y + x y x y + x y y x .
χ x x y y ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) = χ y y x x ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) ,
χ x y x y ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) = χ y x y x ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) ,
χ x y y x ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) = χ y x x y ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) ,
χ x x x x ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) = χ y y y y ( 3 ) ( ϖ , ϖ , ϖ , ϖ ) .
P ( 3 ) = ϵ 0 χ ( 3 ) : E E E ,
U ( X , Y , Z ) = P ( k x , k y ) P ( k x , k y ) exp { i [ ( k x k x ) X + ( k y k y ) Y ] } exp [ i ( k z k z ) Z ] [ 1 i k 0 ( 2 n + 1 ) A n P n ( cos γ k ) ] d k x d k y d k x d k y ,

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