Abstract

Recent results have demonstrated unprecedented wavelength-tuning speed and repetition rate performance of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating scanning filters. However, several unique operational characteristics of these lasers have not been adequately explained, and the lack of an accurate model has hindered optimization. We numerically investigated the characteristics of these sources, using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) traveling-wave Langevin model, and found good agreement with experimental measurements. In particular, we explored the role of the SOA refractive-index nonlinearities in determining the intracavity frequency-shift–broadening and the emitted power dependence on scan speed and direction. Our model predicts both continuous-wave and pulse operation and shows a universal relationship between the output power of lasers that have different cavity lengths and the filter peak frequency shift per round trip, therefore revealing the advantage of short cavities for high-speed biomedical imaging.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 11, 2953 (2003).
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2005

2004

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, M. C. Boudoux, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

1997

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1975

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, and B. N. Sverdlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 147 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bogatov, A. P.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, and B. N. Sverdlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Express 13, 8214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, M. C. Boudoux, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, M. C.

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, M. C. Boudoux, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Culverhouse, D. O.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, M. C. Boudoux, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 11, 2953 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenstein, G.

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, and B. N. Sverdlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Hsu, K.

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mørk, J.

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W. Y.

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

Shtaif, M.

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sverdlov, B. N.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, and B. N. Sverdlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

Tearney, G. J.

White, W. M.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yun, S. H.

C. Boudoux, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, W. M. White, N. V. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Express 13, 8214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, M. C. Boudoux, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Express 11, 2953 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, and B. N. Sverdlov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 510 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, M. C. Boudoux, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. A. Choma, K. Hsu, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the modeled wavelength-swept semiconductor ring laser incorporating a tunable (in time) intracavity filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral characteristics of the laser for a fixed filter wavelength: (a) simulated results, (b) experimental data. Solid curves, laser output; dashed curves, SOA output; dashed–dotted curves, filter function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser characteristics versus scanning speed: (a) output power, (b) spectral width, (c) frequency offset.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Temporal power signals at the laser output calculated for four values of filter peak frequency shift per round trip (RT), (b) normalized output power computed for three α parameter values. Inset, corresponding laser-filter frequency offset values.

Equations (3)

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g l ( t , z ) t = g 0 g l ( t , z ) τ s g ( t , z ) E ( t , z ) 2 E sat ,
E ( t , z ) z + 1 v g E ( t , z ) t = 1 2 [ g ( t , z ) ( 1 i α ) α int ] E ( t , z ) + n ( t , z ) ,
E ( ω , z = 0 ) = [ η α cavity H ( ω ) ] 1 2 exp [ i β ( ω ) L ] E ( ω , z = l ) ,

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