Abstract

The spectral dependence of the bending loss of cascaded 60° bends in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides is explored in a slab-type silicon-on-insulator system. An ultralow bending loss of (0.05±0.03)dBbend is measured at wavelengths corresponding to the nearly dispersionless transmission regime. In contrast, the PhC bend is found to become completely opaque for wavelengths corresponding to the slow-light regime. A general strategy is presented and experimentally verified to optimize the bend design for improved slow-light transmission.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harpøth, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, Opt. Express 12, 5916 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, Opt. Express 12, 1622 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Miao, C. Chen, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurkland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, K.

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blok, H.

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G.-L.

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Chen, C.

B. Miao, C. Chen, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurkland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

M. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurkland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frandsen, L. H.

Fukaya, N.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harpøth, A.

Ikeda, N.

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurkland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

Kristensen, M.

Kurkland, I.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurkland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S. J.

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, Opt. Express 12, 1622 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll and Yu. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 11, 2927 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurkland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, B.

B. Miao, C. Chen, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

Murakowski, J.

B. Miao, C. Chen, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Boyle, M.

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pennings, E. C.

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

B. Miao, C. Chen, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

B. Miao, C. Chen, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigmund, O.

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suh, W.

M. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurkland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vlasov, Yu. A.

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll and Yu. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 11, 2927 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

M. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanik, M.

M. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonekura, J.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Moll and G.-L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, and J. Yonekura, Electron. Lett. 35, 654 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, K. Inoue, and K. Asakawa, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1315 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Miao, C. Chen, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. K. Smit, E. C. M. Pennings, and H. Blok, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1737 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Yu. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, Nature 438, 65 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A. Vlasov, Phys. Rev. B 72, 115102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurkland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrographs of PhC waveguide structures. (a) 10 cascaded 60° bends; (b) magnified view of a simple 60° bend; (c) magnified view of a modified 60° bend with the four holes adjacent to the bend corner having smaller radii.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra for PhC structures with a hole radius of 100 nm ( 0.23 a ) . (a) Spectrum (black curve) of a straight PhC waveguide with a length of 181 μ m , and spectra of structures with 10 (blue curve) and 20 (red curve) cascaded simple bends. The arrow indicates a 30 nm blueshift of the cutoff in the bend spectra with respect to the straight PhC waveguide spectra. Inset, set of spectra measured on 10 different devices with 10 (red curves) and 20 (blue curves) cascaded simple bends. (b) Photonic band diagram for a PhC waveguide with a radius of holes 0.23 a and a slab thickness of 0.52 a . The shaded region corresponds to leaky modes above the light line. The slow-light (I), linear (II), and light-cone (III) regimes are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra for PhC structures with a hole radius of 144 nm ( 0.33 a ) . (a) Spectrum (black curve) of a straight PhC waveguide with a length of 181 μ m and spectra of structures with 10 (blue curve) and 20 (red curve) cascaded simple bends. (b) Spectra of structures with 10 (blue curve) and 20 (red curve) cascaded modified bends. Arrows indicate the blueshift of the cutoff.

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